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Abdellatif, Mahamat. 2011. "Le Contrôle des Filiales à l'Étranger: Une Analyse de la Mobilité des Cadres selon le Risque Pays Perçu." Revue Française de Gestion 37 (3):157-70.

Abstract: Cette contribution étudie les facteurs potentiels d'une forte/faible présence de cadres expatriés au sein des filiales françaises à l'étranger, et particulièrement l'influence du risque pays perçu. Nos résultats suggèrent que les multinationales françaises étudiées envoient plus d'expatriés vers les marchés émergents à risque fort. En revanche, à destination des pays perçus à faible risque, elles transfèrent moins d'expatriés et privilégient le «commuting».

Abell, Peter. 1990. "Supporting Industrial Cooperatives in Developing Countries: Some Tanzanian Experiences." Economic and Industrial Democracy 11 (4):483-504.

Abstract: This paper draws upon both case-study and statistical materials, gathered in Tanzania, in an attempt to determine how industrial producer cooperatives might be promoted. A logistic pattern of cooperative growth is tested and found to dominate a view that the number of coops grows because of support organizations. Drawing upon an ecological model it is suggested that the factor which limits growth is the availability of management and, further, that the growth of the competing 'small-scale sector' is at the expense of the cooperative sector. Management nurtured in the cooperative sector moves into the small-scale sector. Case-study analysis using a Boolean analysis suggests that legitimate and capable management are essential to success of cooperatives particularly with technologies which generate production interdependencies. Finally, supporting evidence for the significance of management competence and interdependence in explaining performance is outlined using an augmented CobbDouglas production function framework.

Achilov, Dilshod, and Renat Shaykhutdinov. 2013. "State Regulation of Religion and Radicalism in the Post-Communist Muslim Republics." Problems of Post-Communism 60 (5):17-33.

Abstract: Analysis of state regulation of Islam in post-communist states shows that tolerant policies are associated with lower levels of religious radicalism, whereas restrictive policies appear to exacerbate the level of extremism.

Ackrén, Maria, and Pär M. Olausson. 2008. "Condition(s) for Island Autonomy." International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 15 (2-3):227-58.

Abstract: The inquiry is focusing on why island autonomy occurs. Our point of departure considers four possible conditions such as geographical distance, ethnicity, GDP/capita and size according to population leading towards island autonomy. We use two sample groups in our study: one encompassing autonomous islands deriving from different parts of the world, with three main islands illustrating what we mean by island autonomy. These consist of the Azores, the Faroe Islands and Isle of Man. The second group consists of so called non-autonomous islands scattered around the world. The analysis is carried out with a specific technique within the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) family and that is Multi-Value QCA (MVQCA). MVQCA is an extension of the Crisp-Set QCA (CSQCA) and withholds a dichotomous dependent variable, while the possible explanatory variables (independent variables) can have multi-values. As a second technique Fuzzy-Set QCA (FSQCA) is employed as a control technique only. While assessing these techniques we receive combinations of conditions leading to the outcome in question. Results show that with MVQCA we receive four different paths towards island autonomy. Ethnicity as the only explanation is one route towards the outcome. A second path is small or large size. Long geographical distance combined with no ethnic diversity is a third way towards island autonomy. The fourth path is long geographical distance combined with the lower or upper middle income group. All the paths are equally valid.
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Adhikari, Prakash, and Steven Samford. 2013. "The Nepali State and the Dynamics of the Maoist Insurgency." Studies in Comparative International Development 48 (4):457-81.

Abstract: In contrast to existing quantitative studies of the civil conflict in Nepal, we argue that combinations of motive and opportunity were crucial for the development of the Maoist insurgency and that these conditions stem largely from the nature of the Nepali state. The decade-long insurgency was characterized by two distinct dynamics. In the initiation period of the war (1996-2000), the insurgency was driven largely by newly enabled Maoist organizers capitalizing on the caste, ethnic, and economic divisions that had been codified over time by autocratic state-building efforts. In the more violent and geographically widespread maturation period of the war (2001-2006), the insurgency depended less on historical grievances than on the motivation of rebels and sympathizers by the often-indiscriminate violence perpetrated by the besieged Nepali state. We provide empirical evidence for this argument in a narrative section that contextualizes the Maoist insurgency as well as in a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) of data for the 75 Nepali districts in the two periods of the insurgency. fsQCA allows for the assessment of how combinations of the largely state-generated motivations and opportunities affected the dynamics of the insurgency.

Aguilera-Caracuel, Javier, Eugenio M. Fedriani, and Blanca L. Delgado-Márquez. 2014. "Institutional Distance among Country Influences and Environmental Performance Standardization in Multinational Enterprises." Journal of Business Research 67 (11):2385-92.

Abstract: This research compares and contrasts the findings in Aguilera-Caracuel et al. (2013) with the outcomes of applying fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) - a methodological strategy that gathers quantitative and qualitative information to explain complexity at the case level and generality across cases. Using the same sample of 128 multinational enterprises (MNEs) with headquarters and subsidiaries based in the USA, Canada, France, and Spain, we identify a set of relevant configurations of causes and conditions to explain environmental performance standardization. By avoiding separate treatments for each variable, which is typical in multiple regression analysis (MRA), we overcome prior limitations and propose a new way of understanding this phenomenon. In summary, our results significantly reinforce and complement the previous results.

Ahn, Sang-Hoon, and Sophia Seung-yoon Lee. 2012. "Explaining Korean Welfare State Development with New Empirical Data and Methods." Asian Social Work and Policy Review 6 (2):67-85.

Abstract: Selecting Korea as one of the conceptually classified East Asian welfare states, this paper aims to empirically investigate the determinants of Korean welfare state development. Linking the research question with the lively discussion on welfare state in Korea that is taking place domestically, this paper also aims to examine whether the development of the Korean welfare state has been influenced by politics of the left or by industrialization with functionalistic perspectives. We conduct an analysis first by regression analysis and then fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to examine the conditions of such development. A Korean Welfare State Dataset (KWSD) has been newly included in the Comparative Welfare State Dataset (CWSD) and we used this new dataset for our empirical analysis. Our empirical findings suggest that, at least up to the current point, factors other than economic development or industrialization are not robust enough to make a claim of a take-off of the Korean welfare state from its developmental stage. However, we also notice the influence of the left government and suggest that it is legitimate to expect an innovative change in the path of the Korean welfare state once the power resource theory is applicable.

Alam, Arshad, and Prabir K. Bagchi. 2013. "Supply Chain Capability of Countries and its Effect on Foreign Direct Investment: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis." International Journal of Logistics Economics and Globalisation 5 (1):59-80.

Abstract: International plant location decisions have acquired relevance in a globalised economy and evidence suggests that the overall production and logistics environment of a country would have a bearing on foreign direct investment (FDI). This study attempts to analyse the impact of the production and logistics environment on incoming FDI. We introduce a new conceptual framework of supply chain capability (SCC) of countries and using the 'fuzzy-set analysis' methodology attempt to determine whether SCC is a necessary or sufficient cause for FDI flows. This study validates the basic proposition that supply chain capability of a country is a determinant of FDI. Further, the study suggests that the FDI attractiveness of a country is better explained by a combination of factors as reflected by the composite variable, SCC, than by individual constituent variables. This study offers insights to firm managers to evaluate various competing country environments, thus enabling them to make better strategic decisions about foreign investment.

Aleman, Jose. 2009. "The Politics of Tripartite Cooperation in New Democracies: A Multi-Level Analysis." International Political Science Review 30 (2):141-62.

Abstract: The literature on labor politics explains cooperation among unions, employers and state representatives in new democracies as a function of alliances between politically influential unions and left governments. This article introduces an original dataset of labor agreements in new democracies (1994-2004). Using Boolean analysis, it shows that while left governments are typically associated with more labor market regulation, they are not sufficient for social pacts to emerge in new democracies. Instead, protective labor market institutions and practices explain most instances of cooperation. Further analysis reveals this to be the case for all types of pacts analyzed.
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Allen, Matthew M. C., and Maria L. Aldred. 2011. "Varieties of Capitalism, Governance, and High-Tech Export Performance: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis of the new EU Member States." Employee Relations 33 (4):334-55.

Abstract: Purpose: This paper aims to assess the extent to which convergence in institutional regimes is likely to occur, by examining all ten new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe in terms of their development of comparative advantages in high-tech export markets either by drawing on foreign investors in the form of multinational companies or by making use of domestic institutional resources. Design/methodology/approach: The article uses fuzzy sets and qualitative comparative analysis to examine both necessary and sufficient causes of success in high-tech export markets. By doing so, it can address the important issue of institutional complementarity. Findings: While it finds that countries that have stronger records in such markets share common features, there are also important differences between them - not least in the areas of employee relations. This, together with other evidence presented in the paper, suggests that convergence around a specific institutional model is unlikely to happen. Originality/value: Analysing, unlike many previous studies, all ten new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe enables conclusions to be drawn that apply to the whole region. The novel method used in this article means that the extent of any complementarity between different institutions can be addressed, and ensures that issues relating to convergence/divergence are explored. The article, therefore, contributes to a number of important debates on the convergence among types of capitalism, the dependency of the new EU member states on foreign investors, and the institutional foundations for success in high-tech export markets.
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Allen, Matthew, and Maria L. Aldred. 2013. "Business Regulation, Inward Foreign Direct Investment, and Economic Growth in the New European Union Member States." Critical Perspectives on International Business 9 (3):301-21.

Abstract: Purpose: This paper assesses the extent to which institutional convergence has taken place in the new European Union member states. It does so by contrasting arguments that are inspired by transaction-cost economics within the mainstream international-business literature and contentions within the comparative-capitalisms perspective. A corollary of arguments within the former is that those countries that have less transparent ways of doing business will post poorer economic growth records than those with more predictable and less costly regulations. By contrast, contentions within the comparative capitalisms literature lead to expectations that a broader set of institutional factors will shape economic growth. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis approach to examine the necessary and sufficient causal conditions for economic growth in the region. Findings: There is a great deal of institutional diversity within the new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe. There are no clusters of countries around a specific variety of capitalism or an economic model that has above-average economic growth rates and that is characterized by institutions that lower the costs of market transacting. This, in turn, suggests that convergence pressures are not as great as the mainstream international-business literature has argued. Research limitations/implications: Future research could complement this study by adopting a cross-country, comparative micro- or firm-level approach to examine the ways in which different institutional factors both individually and collectively shape the growth of businesses and, consequently, economies. Originality/value: Mainstream international business tends to focus on regulation and market-supporting institutions to explain growth in developing economies. This research has shown that a broader view of institutions needs to be adopted, as some countries have been able to post strong economic growth figures despite institutional environments that do not lower the costs of market-based contracting.

Allen, Matthew M. C., and Maria L. Allen. 2015. "Companies' Access to Finance, Co-operative Industrial Relations, and Economic Growth: A Comparative Analysis of the States of South Eastern Europe." Research in International Business and Finance 33 (0):167-77.

Abstract: This paper examines the links between corporate funding, co-operative industrial relations, and wage flexibility, on the one hand, and economic growth, on the other, in 11 countries in South Eastern Europe. These links have been downplayed in previous research. The paper draws on the most comprehensive and extensive dataset on these issues for the whole of the region. Previous research has focused on a selection of these countries. The paper uses a novel analytical technique, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, to examine these possible associations. It finds that wage flexibility and co-operative labour relations can promote growth; the availability of different forms of domestic funding for firms does not. The findings indicate that policy makers may focus their efforts on promoting wage flexibility within a consensual industrial labour system if they wish to foster economic growth.

Alon, Sigal. 2007. "Overlapping Disadvantages and the Racial/Ethnic Graduation Gap among Students Attending Selective Institutions." Social Science Research 36 (4):1475-99.

Abstract: Using a configurational approach, I examine the extent to which the intersection between background attributes can account for racial and ethnic gaps in graduation likelihood among students attending elite institutions in the United States. The results, which are based on the College & Beyond database, demonstrate the compounding effect of multiple disadvantages on students' graduation likelihood, above and beyond the unique hardship associated with each background characteristic. Under-represented minority students are more likely to suffer from overlapping disadvantages than whites and Asians, but given similar constellations of disadvantages most minority students perform as well as whites. However, black students with overlapping disadvantages are slightly less likely to graduate than their white configuration-counterparts. About third of the overall race gap is attributed to the compounding effect of overlapping disadvantages on blacks' achievement. That black male students with overlapping disadvantages are the most vulnerable group of all reveals an intersection between gender, race and class.

Amenta, Edwin, Neal Caren, and Sheera Joy Olasky. 2005. "Age for Leisure? Political Mediation and the Impact of the Pension Movement on U.S. Old-Age Policy." American Sociological Review 70 (3):516-38.

Abstract: This article elaborates a political mediation theory of the impact of social movements on states and policy, positing that the influence of mobilization and specific strategies of collective action depends on specified political contexts and the type of influence sought. Examining the influence of the U.S. old-age pension movement, which involved millions of people, this article appraises the mediation model using state-level data from the 1930s and 1940s on Old Age Assistance-the main support for the aged at the time-and a Senate vote for generous senior citizens' pensions in 1939. Our models control for other potential influences, notably public opinion, which is often ignored in empirical studies and sometimes claimed to be responsible for causal influence mistakenly attributed to challengers. We employ pooled cross-sectional and time series analyses and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (FSQCA), which is especially suited to appraising the combinational expectations of the political mediation model. Both sets of analyses show that the pension movement was directly influential on the outcomes and provide support for the political mediation arguments.

Amenta, Edwin, Neal Caren, Sheera J. Olasky, and James E. Stobaugh. 2009. "All the Movements Fit to Print: Who, What, When, Where, and Why SMO Families Appeared in the New York Times in the Twentieth Century." American Sociological Review 74 (4):636-56.

Abstract: Why did some social movement organization (SMO) families receive extensive media coverage? In this article, we elaborate and appraise four core arguments in the literature on movements and their consequences: disruption, resource mobilization, political partisanship, and whether a movement benefits from an enforced policy. Our fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analyses (fsQCA) draw on new, unique data from the New York Times across the twentieth century on more than 1,200 SMOs and 34 SMO families. At the SMO family level, coverage correlates highly with common measures of the size and disruptive activity of movements, with the labor and African American civil rights movements receiving the most coverage. Addressing why some movement families experienced daily coverage, fsQCA indicates that disruption, resource mobilization, and an enforced policy are jointly sufficient; partisanship, the standard form of "political opportunity," is not part of the solution. Our results support the main perspectives, while also suggesting that movement scholars may need to reexamine their ideas of favorable political contexts.

Amenta, Edwin, Bruce G. Carruthers, and Yvonne Zylan. 1992. "A Hero for the Aged: The Townsend Movement, the Political Mediation Model, and United-States Old-Age Policy, 1934-1950." American Journal of Sociology 98 (2):308-39.

Abstract: During the Depression, the Townsend movement enjoyed varied success in seeking pensions for the aged. Social-movement models predict that success depends on the mobilization of resources or on collective action. Other theories predict that economic or political conditions cause the emergence of movements and changes in public spending. The political mediation model used here holds that, to succeed, a movement must reinforce political action with strong organization of members under favorable political conditions. This article defines "success" and employs various analytical and empirical strategies, including qualitative comparative analysis on state-level data, to appraise the models. Although each perspective has some support, the political mediation model offers the best explanation of the patterns of successes. The state and the political party system determine whether mobilization and action benefit a constituency and win acceptance for a movement organization.

Amenta, Edwin, and Drew Halfmann. 2000. "Wage Wars: Institutional Politics, WPA Wages, and the Struggle for US Social Policy." American Sociological Review 65 (4):506-28.

Abstract: The WPA was the most expensive and politically prominent U.S. social program of the 1930s, and the generosity and very nature of U.S. social policy in its formative years was contested through the WPA. In this article, an institutional politics theory of social policy is elaborated that incorporates the influence of both institutional conditions and political actors: Institutions mediate the influence of political actors. Specifically it is argued that underdemocratized political systems and patronage-oriented party systems dampen the cause of generous social spending and the impact of those struggling for it. State actors, left-party regimes, and social movements spur social policy, but only under favorable institutional conditions. To appraise this theory, key Senate roll-call votes on WPA wage rates are examined, as well as state-level variations in WPA wages at the end of the 1930s. The analyses, which include multiple regression and qualitative comparative analysis, support the theory.

Amenta, Edwin, and Jane D. Poulsen. 1996. "Social Politics in Context: The Institutional Politics Theory and Social Spending at the End of the New Deal." Social Forces 75 (1):33-60.

Abstract: In this article, we develop an institutional politics theory of public social provision and examine U.S. social spending programs at the end of the New Deal. This theory integrates key insights of institutional and political theories of social policy. Drawing on institutional arguments, our theory holds that the willingness or ability of prospending actors to promote social spending initiatives depends on institutional conditions, especially the extent of voting rights and the nature of political party systems. Furthermore, drawing on political arguments, the theory posits the importance of pro-spending actors, including progressive factions of political parties and organized challengers. To appraise the institutional politics theory, we analyze state-level outcomes for Old-Age Assistance pensions and Works Progress Administration wages, employing multiple regression and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). All analyses support the institutional politics theory.

Amoroso, Lisa, and Charles Ragin. 1999. "Individual and Institutional Employment Patterns: Two Approaches to Understanding Control of Voluntary and Involuntary Job Shifts among Germans and Foreigners from 1991 to 1996." Quarterly Journal of Economic Research 68 (2):222-9.

Abstract: As social scientists we are generally interested in modelling complex social processes, yet many conventional practices obscure complexity and thus pose obstacles to its detection and analysis. In this paper we provide an empirical example, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), to illustrate the effect of the implicit simplifying assumptions that researchers make regarding limited diversity. Both logistic regression and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) are used to analyze the same data. Our example considers the factors that shape whether a job change is voluntary or involuntary among former East and West German citizens and foreigners for the period from 1991 to 1996.

Anckar, Dag. 2004. "Direct Democracy in Microstates and Small Island States." World Development 32 (2):379-90.

Abstract: This study is an empirical examination of the use of direct democracy in microstates and small island states. The study covers all democratic microstates and small island states in the world in 1999. Democratic status is derived from Freedom House data, and the question of whether small states form a distinct subpopulation in terms of direct democracy is approached through systematic comparisons with a population consisting of all 85 democracies in 1999. The findings are that whereas microstates make limited use of the popular initiative and the policy vote, they frequently apply the constitutional referendum. Whereas colonial background rather than size explains much of this pattern, the inclination of small states for the constitutional referendum stands substantiated.

Andrade, Luciano de, Catherine Lynch, Elias Carvalho, Clarissa Garcia Rodrigues, João Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Guttenberg Ferreira Passos, Ricardo Pietrobon, Oscar Kenji Nihei, and Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho. 2014. "System Dynamics Modeling in the Evaluation of Delays of Care in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients within a Tiered Health System." PLoS ONE 9 (7):e103577.

Abstract: Background: Mortality rates amongst ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients remain high, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors related with delays in the treatment of STEMI patients to support a strategic plan toward structural and personnel modifications in a primary hospital aligning its process with international guidelines. Methods and Findings: The study was conducted in a primary hospital localized in Foz do Iguacu, Brazil. We utilized a qualitative and quantitative integrated analysis including on-site observations, interviews, medical records analysis, Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and System Dynamics Modeling (SD). Main cause of delays were categorized into three themes: a) professional, b) equipment and c) transportation logistics. QCA analysis confirmed four main stages of delay to STEMI patient's care in relation to the 'Door-in Door-out' time at the primary hospital. These stages and their average delays in minutes were: a) First Medical Contact (From Door-In to the first contact with the nurse and/or physician): 7 minutes; b) Electrocardiogram acquisition and review by a physician: 28 minutes; c) ECG transmission and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Center team feedback time: 76 minutes; and d) Patient's Transfer Waiting Time: 78 minutes. SD baseline model confirmed the system's behavior with all occurring delays and the need of improvements. Moreover, after model validation and sensitivity analysis, results suggested that an overall improvement of 40% to 50% in each of these identified stages would reduce the delay. Conclusions: This evaluation suggests that investment in health personnel training, diminution of bureaucracy, and management of guidelines might lead to important improvements decreasing the delay of STEMI patients' care. In addition, this work provides evidence that SD modeling may highlight areas where health system managers can implement and evaluate the necessary changes in order to improve the process of care.

Ansorg, Nadine. 2014. "Wars without Borders: Conditions for the Development of Regional Conflict Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa." International Area Studies Review 17 (3):295-312.

Abstract: How and under what conditions does war spread into regions and do regional conflict systems evolve? These systems are defined as geographically bound spaces of insecurity, ones that are characterized by interdependent armed conflicts in which a plurality of actors who concur and/or interact within complex networks, and on different levels of action, participate. The regionalization of armed conflict is conceptualized as either the geographical diffusion to a new territory or as the escalation of violence within the very same territory, with the involvement therein of a multiplicity of actors. The processes of diffusion and escalation of civil war in potential and existent regional conflict systems in sub-Saharan Africa between 1989 and 2010 are analyzed with the help of a multivalue Qualitative Comparative Analysis (mvQCA). By using such a QCA, it is possible to compare several different cases and produce results that go beyond the ones thus far discovered from small-N analyses. By comparing 12 cases it is also possible to identify the causal relationships and interactions between variables. The analysis shows that, in the cases compared, four specific conditions lead to a regional spread of violence: economic networks sustained through the support of neighboring countries; an intervention on the part of the government; militarized refugees; and, non-salient regional identity groups.
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Arvind, T. T., and Lindsay Stirton. 2010. "Explaining the Reception of the Code Napoleon in Germany: A Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Legal Studies 30 (1):1-29.

Abstract: This paper examines the diverse responses of the German states to the Code Napoleon at the beginning of the nineteenth century. These states differed both in the extent to which they adopted the Code, and the extent to which they retained the Code after Napoleon's influence waned. In order to identify the causes of adoption and retention of the Code, we use fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). This method is now well established in comparative research in the social sciences but has been little used in comparative legal analysis. We find the following to be among the conditions relevant to the reception of the Code: territorial diversity, control by Napoleon, central state institutions, a feudal economy and society, liberal (enlightented absolutist) rule, nativism among the governing elites and popular anti-French sentiment. The paper also serves to demonstrate the potential of fsQCA as a method for comparative lawyers.
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Aubin, David, and Frederic Varone. 2013. Getting Access to Water: Property Rights or Public Policy Strategies? Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 31(1): 154-67.

Abstract: Water is subject to heterogeneous uses that put pressure on it and create rivalries between competing users. With this paper we analyse the conditions under which challengers are successful in gaining access to the resource and in imposing a change of behaviour on the incumbent users. We ask whether the acquisition of property rights is the only means for a challenger to get access to the resource. The empirical study compares eleven 'most different' cases of water rivalries in four water basins. We show that two main 'paths' explain success: either the challenger activates a property right and negotiates a solution at no cost for the incumbents or he or she activates a public policy that grants him or her aÿcredible alternative to a negotiated agreement. Thus, the challenger must select the kind of rule, property right, or public policy that supports their position and then elaborate an appropriate strategy to impose this rule.
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Avdagic, Sabina. 2010. "When Are Concerted Reforms Feasible? Explaining the Emergence of Social Pacts in Western Europe." Comparative Political Studies 43 (5):628-57.

Abstract: Under what conditions do governments, employers, and unions enter formal policy agreements on incomes, employment, and social security? Such agreements, widely known as social pacts, became particularly prominent during the 1990s when European economies underwent major adjustment. This article seeks to explain national variation in adjustment strategies and specifically why concerted agreements were struck in some countries but not in others. A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis of 14 European countries is employed to assess main arguments about the emergence of pacts. The analysis yields two key findings. First, although prevailing arguments emphasize Economic and Monetary Union-related pressures, or alternatively unemployment, these factors were neither necessary nor in themselves sufficient for pacts to materialize. Rather, a high economic "problem load" appears to be causally relevant only when combined with particular political and institutional conditions, namely, the prevalence of electorally weak governments and/or an intermediate level of union centralization. Second, the analysis refines existing multicausal explanations of pacts by demonstrating three distinct, theoretically and empirically relevant causal pathways to concerted agreements.
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Aversa, Paolo, Santi Furnari, and Stefan Haefliger. 2015. "Business Model Configurations and Performance: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis in Formula One Racing, 2005-2013." Industrial and Corporate Change 24 (3):655-76.

Abstract: We investigate the business model configurations associated with high and low firm performance by conducting a qualitative comparative analysis of firms competing in Formula One racing. We find that configurations of two business models - one focused on selling technology to competitors, the other one on developing and trading human resources with competitors - are associated with high performance. We also investigate why these configurations are high-performing and find that they are underpinned by capability-enhancing complementarities, accelerating firms' learning and supporting the development of focused firms' capabilities.

Baker, Anne E. 2014. "The Fading Exceptionalism of American Political Parties?: Evidence from Party Allocation Decisions." Comparative Sociology 13 (3):284-314.

Abstract: Using qualitative comparative analysis to mirror the decision-framework employed by the leaders of the Democratic and Republican congressional campaign committees, I demonstrate party leaders simultaneously consider multiple factors when they decide how to distribute their party's limited resources to candidates. In contrast to studies, which characterize American party organizations as strategically pragmatic rather than ideologically motivated like parties in many other countries, I find the congressional candidate's ideology is an increasingly important criterion for the receipt of party support as politics in the United States becomes more polarized.

Bakker, René, Bart Cambré, Leonique Korlaar, and Joerg Raab. 2011. "Managing the Project Learning Paradox: A Set-Theoretic Approach Toward Project Knowledge Transfer." International Journal of Project Management 29 (5):494-503.

Abstract: Managing project-based learning is becoming an increasingly important part of project management. This article presents a comparative case study of 12 cases of knowledge transfer between temporary inter-organizational projects and permanent parent organizations. Our set-theoretic analysis of these data yields two major findings. First, a high level of absorptive capacity of the project owner is a necessary condition for successful project knowledge transfer, which implies that the responsibility for knowledge transfer seems to in the first place lie with the project parent organization, not with the project manager. Second, none of the factors are sufficient by themselves. This implies that successful project knowledge transfer is a complex process always involving configurations of multiple factors. We link these implications with the view of projects as complex temporary organizational forms in which successful project managers need to cope with complexity by simultaneously paying attention to both relational and organizational processes.
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Balthasar, Andreas. 2006. "The Effects of Institutional Design on the Utilization of Evaluation." Evaluation 12 (3):353-71.

Abstract: This article presents some of the results from a study in progress, focusing on the influence of the institutional distance between evaluators and evaluees on the utilization of evaluations. The basis for the results presented here is an analysis of ten case studies from Switzerland. These cases involve evaluations that were carried out in different institutional contexts, with widely varying institutional distances between evaluators and evaluees. 'Qualitative Comparative Analysis' (QCA) has been used to interpret the cases, in order to allow a combination of case-and variable-centred comparisons. The analysis indicates that, under certain conditions, the institutional distance between evaluators and evaluees has no influence on the use of evaluations. In particular, formative objectives can be achieved quite independently of distance. When interpreting the results, however, one should not neglect the fact that they are solely based on a systematic evaluation of ten case studies with QCA. Generalization is not possible on this basis, nor is this the aim of the present article. On the contrary, the objective is to continue developing the debate about the influence of the institutional distance between evaluators and evaluees on the utilization of evaluations.
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Baltzer, Maria, Hugo Westerlund, Mona Backhans, and Karin Melinder. 2011. "Involvement and Structure: A Qualitative Study of Organizational Change and Sickness Absence among Women in the Public Sector in Sweden." BMC Public Health 11 (1):318-34.

Abstract: Background: Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method: We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results: The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated Work, Humiliating Position and Already Ill were associated with high sickness absence. Conclusions: These findings suggest that promising areas for future research and improvement in change management could be the structured involvement of the employees in the planning of organizational changes, and the development of methods to avoid highly unregulated working conditions.
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Bank, André, Thomas Richter, and Anna Sunik. 2015. "Long-Term Monarchical Survival in the Middle East: A Configurational Comparison, 1945-2012." Democratization 22 (1):179-200.

Abstract: The survival of eight monarchies during the "Arab Uprisings" has put centre stage the fundamental question about the durability of this subtype of authoritarian regime. Seen from a broader historical perspective, however, the idea that monarchies have an inherent advantage in retaining power is less evident: a number of authoritarian monarchies broke down and subsequently became republics (Egypt 1952, Iraq 1958, North Yemen 1962, Libya 1969, Iran 1979), while others survived (Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates). To account for these divergent long-term pathways we systematically compare the 13 current and former Middle East monarchies. Using a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), we concentrate on five central explanatory factors derived from previous research - namely, external support, rent revenues, family participation, the monarch's claim to legitimate rule, and hard repression. Our findings highlight the existence of three broad pathways to monarchical survival - linchpin monarchies, like Jordan and Morocco, versus the dynastic Gulf monarchies - and also reveal a possible hybrid third pathway, one which shares linchpin characteristics, but relates to cases on the Arabian Peninsula (Oman and the historical Imamate in North Yemen).
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Bara, Corinne. 2014. "Incentives and Opportunities: A Complexity-Oriented Explanation of Violent Ethnic Conflict." Journal of Peace Research 51 (6):696-710.

Abstract: Existing research on the causes of violent ethnic conflict is characterized by an enduring debate on whether these conflicts are the result of deeply felt grievances or the product of an opportunity structure in which rebellion is an attractive and/or viable option. This article argues that the question of whether incentive- or opportunity-based explanations of conflict have more explanatory power is fundamentally misguided, as conflict is more likely the result of a complex interaction of both. The fact is, however, that there is little generalized knowledge about these interactions. This study aims to fill this gap and applies crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) in order to identify constellations of risk factors that are conducive to ethnic conflict. The results demonstrate the explanatory leverage gained by taking causal complexity in the form of risk patterns into account. It takes no more than four different configurations of a total of eight conditions to reliably explain almost two-thirds of all ethnic conflict onsets between 1990 and 2009. Moreover, these four configurations are quasi-sufficient for onset, leading to conflict in 88% of all cases covered. The QCA model generated in this article also fares well in predicting conflicts in-sample and out-of-sample, with the in-sample predictions being more precise than those generated by a simple binary logistic regression.
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Bartley, Tim, and Curtis Child. 2014. "Shaming the Corporation: The Social Production of Targets and the Anti-Sweatshop Movement." American Sociological Review 79 (4):653-79.

Abstract: As social movements co-evolve with changes in states and markets, it is crucial to examine how they make particular kinds of actors into focal points for the expression of grievances and the demand for rights. But researchers often bracket the question of why some kinds of organizations are more likely than others to become targets of social movement pressure. We theorize the "social production of targets" by social movements, rejecting a simple "reflection" model to focus on configurations of power and vulnerability that shape repertoires of contention. Empirically, we extend structural accounts of global commodity chains and cultural accounts of markets to analyze the production of targets in the case of the anti-sweatshop movement of the 1990s. Using a longitudinal, firm-level dataset and unique data on anti-sweatshop activism, we identify factors that attracted social movement pressure to particular companies. Firms' power and positions strongly shaped their likelihood of becoming targets of anti-sweatshop activism. But the likelihood of being a target also depended on the cultural organization of markets, which made some firms more "shamable" than others. Contrary to suggestions of an anti-globalization backlash, globalization on its own, and related predictions about protectionism, cannot explain the pattern of activism.

Barton, Harry, and Malcolm J. Beynon. 2015. "Do the Citizens of Europe Trust their Police?" International Journal of Emergency Services 4 (1):65-85.

Abstract: Purpose: The maintenance of public order and the control of crime are clearly amongst the primary objectives of global law enforcement agencies. An important antecedent to this is the consideration of public trust in their police force. The purpose of this paper is to utilise data from the fifth round European Social Survey (ESS), to investigate how public social indicators may be highlight the level of trust in a country's police force. Design/methodology/approach: The results from the ESS are analysed using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), multiply conjunctional causal configurations of the considered social indicators are then established and analysed. Findings: A consequence of using fsQCA, asymmetric causal configurations are identified for the relative high and low limiting levels of trust towards the police in the considered countries. The results offer novel insights into the relationship between social indicators and police trust, as well as expositing a nascent technique (fsQCA) that may offer future potential in this area. Originality/value: This paper introduces a nascent technique (fsQCA) to analyse a major European data set relating to citizens perceptions of the police. The findings might prove useful for policing organisations as they develop strategies to maintain/improve the level of trust and confidence of citizens in the policing services they provide.

Basedau, Matthias, and Thomas Richter. 2014. "Why do some Oil Exporters Experience Civil War but others do not? Investigating the Conditional Effects of Oil." European Political Science Review 6 (4):549-74.

Abstract: According to quantitative studies, oil seems the only natural resource that is robustly linked to civil war onset. However, recent debates on the nexus of oil and internal conflict have neglected the fact that there are a number of peaceful rentier oil states in existence. Few efforts have been made to explain why some oil-exporting countries have experienced civil war while others have not. We thus address this puzzle, by arguing that civil war risks depend on the specific conditions of oil production and how they come to structure state-society relations. Specifically, we expect that states that are either highly dependent on oil or who have problematic relations with oil regions are prone to civil war. However, these risks will be mitigated either when democratic institutions can manage conflicts peacefully or when abundant oil revenues can be spent in such a way as to buy peace. We test this conditional argument by comparing 39 net oil exporters, using a (crisp-set) Qualitative Comparative Analysis - a methodology particularly suited to test conditional relationships in medium-N samples. Our results largely confirm our conditional hypotheses. Conditions of oil production are ambiguous, and particular combinations thus explain the onset of civil war. Specifically, we find that high abundance is sufficient to ensure peace, while two distinct pathways lead to civil war: the combination of high dependence and low abundance, as well as the overlap of ethnic exclusion and oil reserves in non-abundant and non-democratic oil states.
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Basurto, Xavier. 2013. "Linking Multi-Level Governance to Local Common-Pool Resource Theory using Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis: Insights from Twenty Years of Biodiversity Conservation in Costa Rica." Global Environmental Change 23 (3):573-87.

Abstract: Understanding the relationship between multi-level institutional linkages and conditions influencing the likelihood of successful collective action has practical and theoretical relevance to sustainable local resource governance. This paper studies the relationship between multi-level linkages and local autonomy, a facilitating condition found to increase the likelihood of local successful collective action. A technique known as fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was applied to a longitudinal comparative data set. In the context of the decentralization of a protected area system in Costa Rica (1986-2006), it traced the emergence and endurance of autonomy among local institutions for biodiversity conservation. The technique illustrates which set of multi-level linkages combined in different ways, and at different points in time, to reach the same outcome (local autonomy). The findings show that a unique set of combinations of multi-level linkages led to the emergence of local autonomy among institutions for biodiversity conservation governance. In contrast, a more diverse set was associated with the endurance of local autonomy over time, suggesting that institutional diversity may play a more prominent role in the maintenance of institutional robustness than in processes of institutional emergence.
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Bauwens, Joke, Bojana Lobe, Katia Segers, and Liza Tsaliki. 2009. "A Shared Responsibility." Journal of Children and Media 3 (4):316-30.

Abstract: Children's growing use of the Internet creates both opportunities and risks. Collecting and comparing empirical findings on risks and opportunities experienced across 20 different European countries shows significant differences between them. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), this article investigates which factors contribute towards a high degree of online risk experienced by children across these countries. The research shows that patterns of similarities and differences do not seem to coincide with regional, political, and historical divides across European Union countries. The findings seem to endorse the multilayered approach of multi-stakeholder governance, which stresses the co-responsibility in securing children's online safety. However, one of the most important country conditions explaining high risk appears to be the lack of positive online content provision.

Befani, Barbara. 2005. "The Mechanisms of Suicide: A Realist Approach." International Review of Sociology 15 (1):51-75.

Abstract: This article pursues two aims, a major and a minor one. The major one is to read some important results in the sociological literature on suicide, namely those obtained by Durkheim in 1897, Giddens in 1966 and Pope and Danigelis in 1981, as Context-Mechanism-Outcome configurations. The realist interpretation of the theories of suicide is deemed to be fundamental for the explanation of this social phenomenon, if one wishes not to be misled by the (false) laws which have repeatedly been designated to govern it, e.g., the married are more immune than the unmarried, and, above all - being clamorously labelled 'Sociology's One Law' - the one declaring 'Protestants kill themselves more often than Catholics'. The minor aim is to show that the synthesis of Boolean data, as can be performed for example by QCA (qualitative comparative analysis), is perfectly compatible with the realist synthesis; when not quite constituting its rigorous formalization.
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Bell, R. Greg, Igor Filatotchev, and Ruth V. Aguilera. 2014. "Corporate Governance and Investors' Perceptions of Foreign IPO Value: An Institutional Perspective." Academy of Management Journal 57 (1):301-20.

Abstract: This article investigates stock market responses to different constellations of firm-level corporate governance mechanisms by focusing on foreign initial public offerings (IPOs) in the United States. We build on sociology-grounded research on financial market behavior and use a "nested" legitimacy framework to explore US investor perceptions of foreign IPO value. Using a fuzzy set theoretic methodology, we demonstrate how different combinations of monitoring and incentive-based corporate governance mechanisms lead to the same level of investor valuation of firms. Moreover, institutional factors related to the strength of minority shareholder protection in a foreign IPO's home country represent a boundary condition that affects the number of governance mechanisms required to achieve high value perceptions among US investors. Our findings contribute to the sociological perspective on comparative corporate governance and the dependencies between organizations and institutions.

Bentele, Keith Gunnar. 2013. "Distinct paths to higher inequality? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of rising earnings inequality among U.S. States, 1980-2010." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 34 (0):30-57.

Abstract: In this paper Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is used to explore the extent to which states have taken distinct causal paths to higher levels of earnings inequality within the 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and during the early years of the 2007-09 recession. In these analyses special attention is paid to both the regional unfolding of the processes constituting economic restructuring and whether state institutional arrangements appear to mediate the impacts of inequality-increasing developments. Overall, these analyses suggest that industry and occupational shifts are critical to understanding state and regional experiences; state variation in changes in earnings inequality are, in large part, a story of the continuous playing out of economic restructuring in unique ways in different areas of the country. However, the subnational impact of the growth or decline of particular types of occupations on the earnings distribution is found to be highly contingent, depending on both the types of jobs gained or lost and the institutional and economic context in which those developments occur. It is suggested that the overall contribution of industry shifts to rising inequality may be underemphasized, in part, as a result of a reliance on analytical approaches that are ill-suited to capture the complicated and contingent nature of the impacts of processes such as deindustrialization. These analyses contribute to a growing body of work that employs a distinctly sociological approach in which earnings determination is viewed as multi-level phenomenon. Building on this insight, this paper suggests that changes in subnational levels of inequality may also be usefully conceptualized as an inherently combinatorial phenomenon.

Berbegal-Mirabent, Jasmina, Domingo Enrique Ribeiro-Soriano, and José Luis Sánchez García. 2015. "Can a Magic Recipe Foster University Spin-Off Creation?" Journal of Business Research 68 (11):2272-8.

Abstract: This study examines factors that explain the creation of university spin-offs. The study focuses on mechanisms that technology transfer offices (TTOs) and universities employ to foster spin-offs. These mechanisms include technology transfer activities that support spin-offs, normative frameworks, support infrastructures (i.e., business incubators and science parks), and TTO staff's specialist technical skills. The analysis also differentiates between public and private universities. Spin-offs belong to one or more of the following groups: spin-offs with support from the university's TTO, spin-offs operating under a license agreement, and spin-offs in which the TTO or university holds equity. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) of 2011 data from 63 Spanish universities (46 public and 17 private) identifies recipes of antecedent conditions that effectively foster spin-offs. Results show that no unique combination of antecedent conditions yields more university spin-offs than any other does. This finding indicates that several strategies can successfully lead to academic entrepreneurship.

Berg-Schlosser, Dirk. 1998. "Conditions of Authoritarianism, Fascism and Democracy in Inter-War Europe: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 39 (4):335-77.

Abstract: Conditions of democracy continue to be discussed for various parts of the world. The interwar period in Europe, with some of the most dramatic breakdowns of democratic systems, provides an interesting "Iaboratory" for systematic investigation in this respect. This paper summarizes the major findings of a large international research project covering 18 European states. It presents and discusses broader social structural, political cultural, institutional, etc. conditions of democracy against which the impact of the world economic crisis of the late 1920s and early 1930s, the respective social and electoral reactions, the political moves of major actors and the final survival or breakdown of parliamenlary regimes are assessed. It employs both macro-quantitative and macro-qualitative methods in a cross-sectional and, as far as possible, longitudinal manner. In this way, in a "quasi experimental" systematic comparative design "structure-" and "actor-oriented" approaches, i.e., the "opportunity-set" and the actual choices and outcomes, are brought into a common perspective. The results point to interesting applications to the present situation in Eastern Europe and elsewhere.

Berg-Schlosser, Dirk. 2008. "Determinants of Democratic Successes and Failures in Africa." European Journal of Political Research 47 (3):269-306.

Abstract: This article, first, identifies democratic, authoritarian and 'praetorian' political system types in Africa on the basis of major current indicators. It then systematically tests a broad variety of hypotheses concerning the historical, social-structural, socio-economic, political and institutional determinants and performance characteristics of these system types. A macro-quantitative synopsis attempts to identify the most 'parsimonious' overall constellations of factors in this regard. This is supplemented by a macro-qualitative analysis of major 'conjunctural' conditions identifying the main groups of cases and their determining factors in a 'contradiction-free' manner. The conclusions point to the decisive importance of 'governance' aspects in the future.
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Berg-Schlosser, Dirk, and Gisèle De Meur. 1994. "Conditions of Democracy in Interwar Europe: A Boolean Test of Major Hypotheses." Comparative Politics 26 (3):253-79.

Abstract: Major hypotheses concerning conditions conducive to the breakdown or survival of democratic regimes in sixteen European states in the interwar period are tested in a systematic comparative manner on the basis of Boolean methods. These hypotheses take into account a wide variety of socioeconomic, social structural, political cultural, and institutional factors, as well as specific historical sequences and other dynamic and actor-related effects. The tests clearly exhibit the respective strengths and weaknesses and remaining contradictions of the various approaches. They provide a first "pruning" of some of the more important aspects of empirical democratic theory which can be conducted in a "quasi-experimental" design. The findings point to further modifications and applications elsewhere, including some consequences for contemporary developments.

Berntzen, Einar. 1993. "Democratic Consolidation in Central America: A Qualitative Comparative Approach." Third World Quarterly 14 (3):589-604.

1.Paragraph: 'Democracy' can be said to have replaced 'dependence' as the buzzword of the 1990s with regard to Third World politics. Since the 1980s country after country in the Third World is replacing military and authoritarian regimes with elected regimes. Though this movement has gone furthest in Latin America, it has also had a considerable impact on the politics of Asia and Africa. At face value democracy is sweeping the Third World.

Beyens, Stefanie, Paul Lucardie, and Kris Deschouwer. 2016. "The Life and Death of New Political Parties in the Low Countries." West European Politics 39 (2):257-77.

Abstract: Numerous new parties have emerged since voters became less loyal to established political parties. A number of these survived and have been analysed intensely, especially green and radical right parties; many other new parties disappeared and have been neglected by party research. This article analyses the fate of all 30 political parties that entered parliament in the Netherlands or Belgium between 1950 and 2003. Qualitative comparative analysis is used to identify characteristics of both surviving and disappeared new parties. Conditions related to party origin (roots in civil society, organisational newness, initial programmatic profile) are scrutinised, as are conditions pertaining to the party's developmental process (party organisational strength and the occurrence of defections or party splits). Surviving parties are characterised by strong, rooted organisations that have not suffered defections. Most disappeared parties lacked a strong organisation and roots and have experienced shocks that they could not absorb. Organisational newness makes new parties vulnerable.

Biggert, Robert. 1997. "Why Labor Wins, Why Labor Loses: A Test of two Theories." Sociological Quarterly 38 (1):205-24.

Abstract: Legal regulation of the labor contract is central to American policy formation. This study analyzes the reasons for the passage of federal labor laws that governed workplace activity in the United States from 1897 to 1980. The dependent variable includes all major federal statutes that are favorable or detrimental to labor. Two theories are considered: a mass disruption approach and a party control perspective. Qualitative comparative analysis is used to assess the utility of both theories. For the pro-labor laws, the findings show partial support for both models. The theories are better at explaining reform prior to rather than after World War II. An explanation is presented for this temporal break. For the antilabor laws, the results are inconclusive due to the small sample size. An alternative account is offered that focuses on policy making under divided government. This research suggests analyzing the interaction of economic, class, and political variables and using larger sample research designs as guidelines for future investigation.
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Bijlsma, Katinka M., and Gerhard G. van de Bunt. 2003. "Antecedents of Trust in Managers: A "Bottom up" Approach." Personnel Review 32 (5):638-64.

Abstract: Research on antecedents of trust has, so far, yielded results that do not easily stand up to confrontation with the widely-held assumption of bounded rationality. By employing complex constructs as indicators of antecedents, it is implied that actors, in pondering on trust in managers, can deal with many complex cues, instead of a few single ones, as bounded rationality suggests. This study proposes a different approach, by searching for a parsimonious set of managerial behaviours that serve as cues for subordinates regarding trust in managers. Interview and survey data were combined in this search. Regression analysis and a Boolean pattern analysis were used to arrive at a parsimonious model with high explanatory power.

Binder, Martin. 2015. "Paths to Intervention: What Explains the UN's Selective Response to Humanitarian Crises?" Journal of Peace Research 52 (6):712-26.

Abstract: Over the past two decades, the United Nations Security Council has responded more strongly to some humanitarian crises than to others. This variation in Security Council action raises the important question of what factors motivate United Nations intervention. This article offers a configurational explanation of selective Security Council intervention that integrates explanatory variables from different theories of third-party intervention. These variables are tested through a comparison of 31 humanitarian crises (1991-2004) using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. The analysis shows that a large extent of human suffering and substantial previous involvement in a crisis by international institutions are the key explanatory conditions for coercive Security Council action, but only when combined with negative spillover effects to neighboring countries (path 1) or with low capabilities of the target state (path 2). These results are highly consistent and explain 85% of Security Council interventions after the end of the Cold War. The findings suggest that the Council's response to humanitarian crises is not random, but follows specific patterns that are indicated by a limited number of causal paths.
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Blackman, Tim. 2008. "Can Smoking Cessation Services be Better Targeted to Tackle Health Inequalities? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study." Health Education Journal 67 (2):91-101.

Abstract: Objective: To investigate how smoking cessation services could be more effectively targeted to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Design Secondary analysis of data from a household interview survey undertaken for Middlesbrough Council in north east England using the technique of Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Setting Home-based interviews in Middlesbrough. Method: Qualitative Comparative Analysis of data for 2882 respondents aged 16 years or over. Smoking prevalence was calculated for different combinations of respondents' characteristics: worklessness, income, education, neighbourhood liveability and neighbourliness. Results: Smoking prevalence ranged from 74.5 per cent to 10.3 per cent across 19 combinations of the selected characteristics. Almost all combinations with smoking rates higher than 50 per cent included worklessness. One other combination exceeded 50 per cent and included respondents reporting all of the following: unhelpful neighbours, no further education, low liveability and low income. The combinations with the lowest smoking prevalences had only one or two of these characteristics present and the very lowest prevalence of 10.3 per cent was associated with all being absent. If unhelpful neighbours were present in any combination smoking rates were moderately high (32.4 per cent or higher). Conclusions: The analysis points to important features of the context of smokers' lives. By improving these conditions, appreciable reductions in smoking prevalence are likely. These reductions might be even greater if interventions to improve neighbourhoods and job opportunities are combined with the timely provision of smoking cessation services. Targeting these transitions could be a more effective strategy than simply targeting all deprived neighbourhoods.

Blackman, Tim. 2013. "Exploring Explanations for Local Reductions in Teenage Pregnancy Rates in England: An Approach Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Social Policy and Society 12 (1):61-72.

Abstract: Teenage pregnancy rates in the UK are high compared with many other countries but there is marked variation across local areas, including those with high deprivation. This study uses the method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis to identify conditions associated with the presence or absence of a narrowing gap in teenage pregnancy rates as measured by the differences between deprived local authority areas and the national average. A higher proportion of black and minority ethnic groups in the local population is found to be a sufficient although not necessary condition for narrowing to have occurred. Surprisingly, a good assessment of commissioning practice - combined with other conditions - was associated with areas where the gap has not been narrowing.

Blackman, Tim, and Katie Dunstan. 2010. "Qualitative Comparative Analysis and Health Inequalities: Investigating Reasons for Differential Progress with Narrowing Local Gaps in Mortality." Journal of Social Policy 39 (03):359-73.

Abstract: Although health inequalities in England reflect underlying deprivation, there is considerable variation among deprived areas in the extent to which these inequalities are narrowing. Using survey data from 15 local authority areas in North West England, and Ragin's technique of Qualitative Comparative Analysis, contextual features and ways of working in these areas are shown to combine in systematic ways with recent trends in inequalities as measured by premature mortality. For circulatory diseases, a narrowing mortality gap showed a clear association with smoking cessation services that accorded with a best practice description, combined with a local population with relatively more people aged 65 or older. For cancers, a narrowing mortality gap was associated with areas that combined relatively low population mobility with a professional working culture described as one of individual commitment and championing. These findings reveal the complexity of meeting health inequality targets and applying evidence to this endeavour, since both ways of working and context appear to be important to making progress. Both need to be understood case by case if targets are to be locally realistic and evidence applied where local practice is known to matter to the outcome.

Blackman, Tim, Jonathan Wistow, and David Byrne. 2011. "A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Factors Associated with Trends in Narrowing Health Inequalities in England." Social Science & Medicine 72 (12):1965-74.

Abstract: This study explores why progress with tackling health inequalities has varied among a group of local authority areas in England that were set targets to narrow important health outcomes compared to national averages. It focuses on premature deaths from cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the local authority gap for these outcomes narrowed. Survey and secondary data were used to create dichotomised conditions describing each area. For cancers, ten conditions were found to be associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: presence/absence of a working culture of individual commitment and champions; spending on cancer programmes; aspirational or comfortable/complacent organisational cultures; deprivation; crime; assessments of strategic partnership working, commissioning and the public health workforce; frequency of progress reviews; and performance rating of the local Primary Care Trust (PCT). For CVD, six conditions were associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: a PCT budget closer or further away from target; assessments of primary care services, smoking cessation services and local leadership; presence/absence of a few major programmes; and population turnover. The method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis was used to find configurations of these conditions with either the narrowing or not narrowing outcomes. Narrowing cancer gaps were associated with three configurations in which individual commitment and champions was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with a group of conditions that had in common a high level of bureaucratic-type work. Narrowing CVD gaps were associated with three configurations in which a high assessment of either primary care or smoking cessation services was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with two configurations that both included an absence of major programmes. The article considers substantive and theoretical arguments for these configurations being causal and as pointing to ways of improving progress with tackling health inequalities.
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Blake, Charles H. 1996. "The Politics of Inflation-Fighting in New Democracies." Studies in Comparative International Development 31 (2):37-57.

Abstract: Several scholars have advocated social pacts as a means to combat inflation in new democracies. This article examines efforts to negotiate social pacts in five nascent democratic regimes during their first five years in existence. Boolean analysis demonstrates the improbable nature of the social pacts negotiated in Spain; subsequent analysis aims at improving our understanding of why Spain successed. While social pacts have been minimally useful in most new democracies, inflation has been combatted more successfully in many countries (including some of the cases analyzed here) via the move from state capitalism toward more free-market policies. While market economics has been more successful in fighting inflation, the political effects of such policies have been mixed.

Blake, Charles H., and Jessica R. Adolino. 2001. "The Enactment of National Health Insurance: A Boolean Analysis of Twenty Advanced Industrial Countries." Journal of Health Politics, Policy & Law 26 (4):679.

Abstract: The scholarly literature on health care politics has generated a series of hypotheses to explain U.S. exceptionalism in health policy and to explain the adoption of national health insurance (NHI) more generally. Various cultural, institutional, and political conditions are held to make the establishment of some form of national health insurance policy more (or less) likely to occur. The literature is dominated by national and comparative case studies that illustrate the theoretical logic of these hypotheses but do not provide a framework for examining the hypotheses cross-nationally. This article is an initial attempt to address that void by using Boolean analysis to examine systematically several of the major propositions that emerge from the case study literature on the larger universe of twenty advanced industrial democracies. This comparative analysis offers considerable support for the veto points hypothesis while still finding each of the factors examined to be relevant in certain scenarios. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these findings for future research and for advocates of national health insurance in the United States.
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Blake, Charles H., and Noah Klemm. 2006. "Reconsidering the Effectiveness of International Economic Sanctions: An Examination of Selection Bias." International Politics 43 (1):133-49.

Abstract: One major concern in the study of international economic sanctions is the potential problem of selection bias. Game-theoretical analyses assert that the private suggestion of sanctions could bring about the desired change in behaviour: sanctions are least likely to be imposed when they are most likely to be effective. If this were true frequently enough, the study of sanctions implemented by states (such as in the data developed by Hufbauer, Schott, and Elliott [HSE]) would provide an incomplete picture of the effectiveness of the sanctions approach. In this article, we adapt Boolean analytic techniques to estimate selection bias in the HSE data. This analysis yields evidence of selection bias - suggesting that we should reconsider existing empirical research based on those data. We conclude by considering research approaches that could capture the cases lost to selection bias in the HSE data.

Blatter, Joachim, Matthias Kreutzer, Michaela Rentl, and Jan Thiele. 2010. "Preconditions for Foreign Activities of European Regions: Tracing Causal Configurations of Economic, Cultural, and Political Strategies." Publius 40 (1):171-99.

Abstract: This article traces international activities of regional governments in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy. We describe how intensively the regions are investing in economic, cultural, and political activities, and how broad the different activities are spread. Then we analyze preconditions for strong activities by using the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. Two assumptions about causal configurations are confirmed. First, high economic interdependencies in combination with large financial capacities are in most cases sufficient for setting up many promotional offices abroad. Second, a high level of policy autonomy, in combination with strong competencies in foreign affairs, is almost always sufficient for having a well-staffed office in Brussels. In contrast, partnerships with foreign political entities are not a result of a cultural causal configuration.
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Bleijenbergh, Inge, and Conny Roggeband. 2007. "Equality Machineries Matter: The Impact of Women's Political Pressure on European Social-Care Policies." Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 14 (4):437-59.

Abstract: This study examines the impact of feminist pressure and European Union (EU) policies on national policy changes, such as the introduction or extension of public childcare provision, parental leave, and part-time work legislation. We compared six countries on the basis of Qualitative Comparative Analysis and found that women's political pressure, especially through national equality machinery, is a prerequisite for the emergence and extension of social-care policies. Sequence analysis showed that national machineries are crucial in translating EU measures into national policies.

Bochsler, Daniel. 2011. "It is not how many Votes you get, but also where you get them. Territorial Determinants and Institutional Hurdles for the Success of Ethnic Minority Parties in Post-Communist Countries." Acta Politica 46 (3):217-38.

Abstract: Electoral rules have long been held as important for the success of new political parties, but research has neglected the dimension of territory in this equation. This article argues that the territorial structure of social groups, in interaction with the electoral system, makes a crucial difference for the ability of new parties to enter parliament. In district-based electoral systems, social groups that are highly concentrated face much lower hurdles with an own party than groups that are spread throughout the country. The argument is tested on a novel database on ethnic minority groups from post-communist countries in Europe, including 123 minorities in 19 countries. To test hypotheses with complex interaction effects and binary variables, Qualitative Comparative Analysis appears as the most suitable method. After controlling for size and special minority-relevant provisions in the electoral systems, there is strong confirmation for the hypothesised effect.

Bochsler, Daniel. 2012. "When Two of the Same Are Needed: A Multilevel Model of Intragroup Ethnic Party Competition." Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 18 (2):216-41.

Abstract: Parties of ethno-regional minorities have been created in a large number of ethnically diverse countries, but sometimes one such party is not enough. While previous work has investigated the consequences of intragroup party competition, this study looks at the causes of internal political diversification of minority groups. In states with multiple levels of governments, intra-ethnic rival parties emerge if minorities are local majorities in certain regions. Intra-ethnic party competition is limited, however, through the national electoral system, and especially high legal thresholds can restrict minority parties. This results in complex interaction terms of the territorial settlement structure of ethnic minorities and different types of electoral systems. The empirical analysis relies on Boolean Algebra (csQCA) and on a new cross-national dataset of 19 postcommunist democracies in Europe, counting 123 ethnic minorities.
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Bodin, Örjan, and Henrik Österblom. 2013. "International Fisheries Regime Effectiveness - Activities and Resources of Key Actors in the Southern Ocean." Global Environmental Change 23 (5):948-56.

Abstract: Many contemporary environmental challenges are truly global and span several organizational and geographical borders. Research on international environmental regimes has, over the last couple of decades, identified several important factors that contribute to a more effective governance of global ecological resources, but few studies have addressed the different roles certain influential individual organizations play in determining regime effectiveness. Here we address this question by studying a relatively successful fishery governance system in the Southern Ocean. By drawing on insights from the research fields of common-pool resource management and international environmental regimes, we demonstrate that organizations engaged in certain combinations of activities, and that have access to certain combinations of resources stand out as important for regime effectiveness. In particular, collaboration with other flag states and being politically well-connected stand out as important explanatory factors. However, access to advanced technology, engagement in public campaigns, and being active in the field are other factors that, in different combinations, also seem to explain organizational importance. Furthermore, governmental and non-governmental organizations tend to perform different sets of activities and possess different resources, thereby complementing each other. Also, organizations doing similar things are often of different types with different mandates and objectives. This could contribute to improved adaptability and responsiveness to change at the larger regime level. Finally, we discuss some potential implications of our results for capacity-building in international environmental governance.

Boon, Jan, and Koen Verhoest. 2015. "Differences in Overhead Among Public Agencies in the Era of Austerity." Public Performance & Management Review 38 (2):234-60.

Abstract: Reducing overhead is a target for governments across Europe that are looking for ways to economize. This study contributes to our understanding of overhead levels in different types of agencies. Regression and fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) are applied to examine the relationship between an agency's overhead level and its formal autonomy, result control, size, and task. The results support the claim that greater formal autonomy leads to a higher overhead, especially when combined with performance-based target setting or when frequent monitoring is absent. The relationship, however, is nonlinear. Distinct effects for the different subdimensions of result control are found. Agency size and task mediate the relationship between formal autonomy, result control and overhead, but only in specific combinations.

Botta, Marco, and Guido Schwellnus. 2015. "Enforcing State Aid Rules in EU Candidate Countries: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of the Direct and Indirect Effects of Conditionality." Journal of European Public Policy 22 (3):335-52.

Abstract: The article analyses the effectiveness of EU conditionality regarding the enforcement of state aid rules in candidate countries during the pre-accession phase. Theoretically, conditionality should be able to overcome the reluctance of governments to implement control systems that restrict their ability to freely allocate subsidies. Effective conditionality can take two causal paths: first, it can directly influence the political decisions of governments in candidate countries regarding state aid, independent of any domestic institutional set-up; second, the reduction of state aid levels can be the indirect effect of the establishment of domestic monitoring authorities. To test these hypotheses, the article undertakes a multi-value qualitative comparative analysis (mvQCA) of the conditions for the reduction of annual state aid levels with regard to either the credibility of conditionality expressed by different stages in the accession negotiations, or domestic institutional factors such as the independence and operability of state aid monitoring authorities.
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Boudet, Hillary S., Dilanka C. Jayasundera, and Jennifer Davis. 2011. "Drivers of Conflict in Developing Country Infrastructure Projects: Experience from the Water and Pipeline Sectors." Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 137 (7):498-511.

Abstract: Despite the considerable scholarship focused on infrastructure investment in the developing world and the substantial sums of money spent each year on developing-country infrastructure, little attention has been given to understanding the drivers of conflict that shape the trajectory and cost structures of these massive investments. The manifestation of conflict among stakeholders in infrastructure projects ranges from the renegotiation of contract terms by project partners to popular protests among consumers of privatized services. The principal objective of this research is to identify combinations of country, project, and stakeholder factors that are associated with the emergence of legal and political conflict within natural gas and oil pipeline projects and water supply concessions and leases. The analysis includes data from 26 infrastructure projects spanning 31 countries and uses an analytical approach derived from Boolean algebra. Country-level characteristics, such as extent of democracy and rate of international NGO membership, are found to be important elements in the recipes for conflict among water supply projects but not for pipeline projects. Local impacts such as service price increases (water supply) and limited provision of oil and gas to the project host country (pipelines) are also important drivers of conflict for both subsectors. The involvement of one or more international financial institutions is also associated with the emergence of conflict in projects. Contrary to expectations, public consultation is associated with conflict in both subsectors. Overall, the study findings suggest that several factors associated with conflict in infrastructure projects can be minimized with careful project design.

Boyer, Robert. 2004. "New Growth Regimes, but still Institutional Diversity." Socio-Economic Review 2 (1):1-32.

Abstract: Whereas the American case may hint that product and labour market deregulation, venture capital and NASDAQ are necessary for the success of technologically led growth, international comparison suggests the coexistence of at least three successful configurations. Deregulated economies explore a science-pushed innovation, along with external labour flexibility and significant inequality in terms of competences. However, social democratic countries develop a cooperative approach to the knowledge-based economy: rather homogeneous educational level, lifelong learning, negotiation by social partners of the consequence of innovation and collectively organized labour mobility. There is a third configuration for some catching-up economies that use information technology as a method of leapfrogging: labour markets remain largely institutionalized and regulated, without exerting adverse impact upon macroeconomic performance.

Braun, Caelesta. 2013. "The Driving Forces of Stability: Exploring the Nature of Long-Term Bureaucracy-Interest Group Interactions." Administration & Society 45 (7):809-36.

Abstract: This article explores the nature of long-term interactions between bureaucrats and interest groups by examining two behavioral logics associated with stability in public policy making. In addition to the implicit short-term strategic choices that usually feature in resource-exchange explanations of interest group access to policy makers, this article shows that bureaucracy-interest group interactions are likely to be dictated by routine behavior and anticipating future consequences as well. By drawing on survey and face-to-face interview data of Dutch senior civil servants and interest groups, the analyses reveal that a practice of regular consultations, the need for political support, and a perceived influential position together explain why bureaucrats maintain interactions with interest groups. The combination of these behavioral logics adds important explanatory leverage to existing resource-exchange explanations and shows that organizational processes as well as long-term strategic considerations should be taken into account to fully explain bureaucracy-interest group interactions.

Breitmeier, Helmut, Arild Underdal, and Oran R. Young. 2011. The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes: Comparing and Contrasting Findings from Quantitative Research. International Studies Review 13(4): 579-605.

Abstract: This article uses quantitative methods to deepen and broaden our understanding of the factors that determine the effectiveness of international regimes. To do so, we compare and contrast the findings resulting from two major projects: the Oslo-Seattle Project and the International Regimes Database Project. The evidence from these projects sheds considerable light on the determinants of regime effectiveness in the environmental realm. Clearly, regimes do make a difference. By combining models and data from the two projects, we are able to move beyond this general proposition to explore the significance of a number individual determinants of effectiveness, including the distribution of power, the roles of pushers and laggards, the effects of decision rules, the depth and density of regime rules, and the extent of knowledge of the relevant problem. We show how important insights emerge not only from the use of statistical procedures to separate the effects of individual variables but also from the application of alternative techniques, such as Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), designed to identify combinations of factors that operate together to determine the effectiveness of regimes. We use our results to identify a number of opportunities for additional research featuring quantitative analyses of regime effectiveness. Our goal is not to displace traditional qualitative methods in this field of study. Rather, we seek to sharpen a set of quantitative tools that can be joined together with the extensive body of qualitative studies of environmental regimes to strengthen our ability both to identify patterns in regime effectiveness and to explore the causal mechanisms that give rise to these patterns.

Bretthauer, Judith M. 2015. "Conditions for Peace and Conflict: Applying a Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis to Cases of Resource Scarcity." Journal of Conflict Resolution 59 (4):593-616.

Abstract: This study applies fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) to the debate on links between resource scarcity and armed conflict. Previous studies on this relationship have reached contradictory results. This study aims to solve this contradiction by arguing that social, economic, and political conditions play an important role in determining whether armed conflict erupts over resource scarcity. I test three theoretic hypotheses, focusing on weak states, economic situations of households, and human ingenuity. I compare fifteen resource scarce cases with conflict to sixteen cases without armed conflict. My analysis supports the hypothesis that the economic situation of households and the levels of human ingenuity matter. In particular, the impact of high dependence on agriculture and low levels of tertiary education on the link between resource scarcity and conflict is discussed. While employing an fsQCA proves a valuable step in accounting for contradictory results, limits of the methods are apparent as well.

Breuer, Anita. 2009. "The Use of Government-Initiated Referendums in Latin America: Towards a Theory of Rederendum Causes." Revista De Ciencia Politica 29 (1):23-55.

Abstract: Over the past two decades there has been a considerable increase in the number of referendums worldwide. The existing literature on direct democracy has so far failed to explain this phenomenon by delivering a consistent theory on the causes of referendums. This explorative study aims at undertaking steps toward closing this gap by focusing on the specific type of facultative government-initiated referendums (FGIR) and their use in presidential systems. Using QCA (a case-sensitive technique based on the formal logic of Boolean algebra), this study systematically compares the political opportunity structures of 49 presidential systems from 12 Latin American countries to detect the factors that spurred or obstructed the occurrence of FGIR. It concludes that FGIR are closely linked to high levels of party system fragmentation and divided government, i.e. two factors which have long been deemed problematic in the context of presidential systems, while their obstruction is mainly owed to the specific constitutional provisions regulating the referendum device.

Brigham, Anne Margrethe. 2011. "Agricultural Exports and Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Qualititative Configurational Analysis." Development Policy Review 29 (6):729-48.

Abstract: Export of agricultural products is increasingly seen as one of the few viable instruments to solve the problem of food insecurity in developing countries. Using the configurative comparative method to study 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, this article argues that increasing agricultural export is only beneficial for certain types of developing countries. Before agricultural exports are encouraged, food availability, agricultural labour productivity, the share of agriculture in total GDP, the amount of staple food imports, and the share of investment goods in total imports should be considered.
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Britt, David W. 1998. "Beyond Elaborating the Obvious: Context-Dependent Parental-Involvement Scenarios in a Preschool Program." Applied Behavioral Science Review 6 (2):179-97.

Abstract: Two years of data from HIPPY-MidWest City, a home-based preschool program, are analyzed using qualitative comparative analysis to assess the extent to which the involvement of parents in the program is contextually dependent. Two alternative scenarios are constructed on the basis of work on the nature of good service to high-risk populations and presented in the form of a model. I expected and found that parents in low-risk families would be highly involved no matter what level of additional family support for problems of living was provided by the program. I expected and found that parents in high-risk families, on the other hand, would only be highly involved if the program were able to provide additional support for the problems of living with which they were coping. The robustness of the conclusions and implications for future research are also discussed.

Britt, David W. 2006. "A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of the Conditions Affecting Early Maternal Transfer Patterns." Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 12 (8):392-5.

Abstract: In Arkansas, almost all of the high-risk-pregnancy resources are concentrated in a single place, at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS). During the 6-month period before a telemedicine programme started, there were five operational telemedicine sites in the state, and during the subsequent 12-month period, there were 13 telemedicine sites in operation. Data were gathered on birth-related transfers during the two periods. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was used to assess the effect of different combinations of telemedical and hospital-level resources on the timing of maternal transfers. Early (pre-33-week gestational age) maternal transfers occurred in period 1 (before the telemedicine programme started), only from areas with level-2 hospital resources and no telemedicine access; early transfers also occurred in period 2 from areas with level-2 hospital resources and either telemedicine access or no telemedicine access. We conclude that combinations of resources affect physician decisions regarding transfer and that QCA is a useful tool for examining the growth and development of telemedicine systems.

Britt, David W., and Mark I. Evans. 2007. "Sometimes Doing the Right Thing Sucks: Frame Combinations and Multi-Fetal Pregnancy Reduction Decision Difficulty." Social Science & Medicine 65 (11):2342-56.

Abstract: Data are analyzed for 54 women who made an appointment with a North American Center specializing in multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR) to be counseled and possibly have a reduction. The impact on decision difficulty of combinations of three frames through which patients may understand and consider their options and use to justify their decisions are examined: a conceptional frame marked by a belief that life begins at conception; a medical frame marked by a belief in the statistics regarding risk and risk prevention through selective reduction; and a lifestyle frame marked by a belief that a balance of children and career has normative value. All data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and observation during the visit to the center over an average 2.5 h period. Decision difficulty was indicated by self-assessed decision difficulty and by residual emotional turmoil surrounding the decision. Qualitative comparative analysis was used to analyze the impact of combinations of frames on decision difficulty. Separate analyses were conducted for those reducing only to three fetuses (or deciding not to reduce) and women who chose to reduce below three fetuses. Results indicated that for those with a non-intense conceptional frame, the decision was comparatively easy no matter whether the patients had high or low values of medical and lifestyle frames. For those with an intense conceptional frame, the decision was almost uniformly difficult, with the exception of those who chose to reduce only to three fetuses. Simplifying the results to their most parsimonious scenarios oversimplifies the results and precludes an understanding of how women can feel pulled in different directions by the dictates of the frames they hold. Variations in the characterization of intense medical frames, for example, can both pull toward reduction to two fetuses and neutralize shame and guilt by seeming to remove personal responsibility for the decision. We conclude that the examination of frame combinations is an important tool for understanding the way women carrying multiple fetuses negotiate their way through multi-fetal pregnancies, and that it may have more general relevance for understanding pregnancy decisions in context.

Britt, David W., Samantha T. Risinger, Virginia Miller, Mary K. Mans, Eric L. Krivchenia, and Mark I. Evans. 2000. "Determinants of Parental Decisions after the Prenatal Diagnosis of Down Syndrome: Bringing in context." American Journal of Medical Genetics 93 (5):410-6.

Abstract: This article develops the concept of decision context to refer to the combinations of factors that are important in understanding and predicting termination decisions after a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21. Four factors are examined: maternal age, gestational age, prior voluntary abortion, and existing children. The cases were studied at the Wayne State University's Reproductive Genetics Clinic. Qualitative comparative analysis, a technique specifically designed for examining the impact of combinations of factors, is used to isolate influential decision contexts. Odds and odds ratios are used to pinpoint outcome differences among different decision contexts. Four alternative decision contexts are especially conducive to choosing to terminate a pregnancy. Two of these involve women of any age and are formed from combinations of gestational age and existing children (existing children and low gestational age, and no children combined with late gestational age). Older women who have not had an abortion and who discover the trisomy 21 anomaly early are likely to choose termination. Younger women who have had an abortion are also likely to choose termination. Our data suggest there are added layers of complexity to patients' decisions that derive from combinations of conditions. An additional, strong implication is that qualitative comparative analysis may be particularly useful in understanding such complexity.

Brown, Cliff, and Terry Boswell. 1995. "Strikebreaking or Solidarity in the Great Steel Strike of 1919: A Split Labor Market, Game-Theoretic, and QCA Analysis." American Journal of Sociology 100 (6):1479-519.

Abstract: Split labor market theory provides insight into the development of ethnic and racial antagonism but has failed to address interracial solidarity and has tended to ignore the role of the state. The authors modify Heckathorn's formal model of collective action to derive predictions concerning the possibility of interracial solidarity or strikebreaking given split labor market conditions. Predictions are then examined using qualitative comparative analysis for 16 northern cities that participated in the 1919 steel strike. Results show that interracial solidarity developed in cities that had strong local union organizations and nonrepressive governments, while black strikebreaking emerged in cities with higher proportions of recent black migrants and either repressive local governments or weak unions.

Brueggemann, J., and T. Boswell. 1998. "Realizing Solidarity - Sources of Interracial Unionism during the Great Depression." Work and Occupations 25 (4):436-82.

Abstract: In a time of economic depression and racism more overt than anything we now experience, the unions of the Congress of Industrial Organirations (CIO) during the 1930s and 1940s forged a lasting interracial solidarity within the industrial working class. The authors tell the stories of how three CIO organizing drives achieved interracial solidarity. In 1933, the United Mine Workers (UMW) adopted the "UMW formula" for placing Black workers in positions as union officers and organizers. Adopted from more radical unions, the formula institutionalized racial inclusion, which proved to be a major tactical innovation in realizing class solidarity across racial lines. Faced with similar conditions, the Steel Workers Organizing Committee in 1937 and the United Auto Workers in 1940 adopted variants of the UMW formula to overcome racial barriers to organizing. The authors analyze narratives of these three drives using the following two qualitative methods: event-structure analysis (ESA) a diachronic method and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) a synchronic method. Both approaches reveal the importance of three main factors: tactical innovations, political context, and labor market conditions. The first two factors are explained by political process theory, and the third is predicted by split labor market theory. Among these findings, ESA highlights path dependence of tactical innovations and QCA emphasizes structural conditions in the labor market.
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Brüggemann, Michael, and Katharina Kleinen-von Königslöw. 2013. "Explaining Cosmopolitan Coverage." European Journal of Communication 28 (4):361-78.

Abstract: Research on international news flows has mostly aimed to explain why certain countries and regions are more reported on than others. There are few studies, however, on the reasons why some media outlets cover foreign affairs more intensively than others. This article thus extends our current knowledge by mapping different degrees of cosmopolitan coverage and identifying key conditions that help to explain these differences. Analysing foreign reporting and transnational debate in 12 newspapers from six European countries the study then employs FsQCA as the method for identifying the best 'recipes' - defined as the most relevant constellations of conditions for explaining cosmopolitan coverage. These causal recipes combine conditions at the level of the media outlet and conditions related to the country where the respective outlet is situated.

Brunton, Ginny, Alison O'Mara-Eves, and James Thomas. 2014. "The 'Active Ingredients' for Successful Community Engagement with Disadvantaged Expectant and New Mothers: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Journal of Advanced Nursing 70 (12):2847-60.

Abstract: Aims: To explore which conditions of community engagement are implicated in effective interventions targeting disadvantaged pregnant women and new mothers. Background: Adaptive experiences during pregnancy and the early years are key to reducing health inequalities in women and children worldwide. Public health nurses, health visitors and community midwives are well placed to address such disadvantage, often using community engagement strategies. Such interventions are complex; however, and we need to better understand which aspects of community engagement are aligned with effectiveness. Design: Qualitative comparative analysis conducted in 2013, of trials data included in a recently published systematic review. Methods: Two reviewers agreed on relevant conditions from 24 maternity or early years intervention studies examining four models of community engagement. Effect size estimates were converted into 'fuzzy' effectiveness categories and truth tables were constructed. Using fsQCA software, Boolean minimization identified solution sets. Random effects multiple regression and fsQCA were conducted to rule out risk of methodological bias. Results/findings: Studies focused on antenatal, immunization, breastfeeding and early professional intervention outcomes. Peer delivery (consistency 0.83; unique coverage 0.63); and mother-professional collaboration (consistency 0.833; unique coverage 0.21) were moderately aligned with effective interventions. Community-identified health need plus consultation/collaboration in intervention design and leading on delivery were weakly aligned with 'not effective' interventions (consistency 0.78; unique coverage 0.29). Conclusions: For disadvantaged new and expectant mothers, peer or collaborative delivery models could be used in interventions. A need exists to design and test community engagement interventions in other areas of maternity and early years care and to further evaluate models of empowerment.
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Bukvova, Helena. 2012. "A Holistic Approach to the Analysis of Online Profiles." Internet Research 22 (3):340-60.

Abstract: Purpose: The article aims to present a holistic approach to analysis of patterns on complex online profiles, demonstrated on profiles of European scientists. Design/methodology/approach: An existing analytical framework was developed to incorporate a holistic understanding of online profiles. The framework was applied to a sample of 188 online profiles belonging to 48 European scientists. The profile data were studied on three levels (content-unit level, profile-instance level, and profile-network level), using methods of the qualitative comparative analysis to derive profiling patterns. Findings: The approach developed in this work generated profiling patterns for European scientists. The patterns exist on all three levels, forming a hierarchy. This pattern structure shows the variety of ways in which scientists can use the internet for self-presentation. Originality/value: The study was based on a holistic understanding of online self-presentation, acknowledging that personal presentation can be spread across different platforms. The study presented shows how this understanding can be used when analysing online profiling behaviour. The profiling patterns of European scientists identified in this study supplement existing typologies. The study serves as a foundation to structure further research as well as to inform practitioners.

Cacciatore, Federica, Alessandro Natalini, and Claudius Wagemann. 2015. "Clustered Europeanization and National Reform Programmes: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Journal of European Public Policy 22 (8):1186-211.

Abstract: This article aims to broaden the debate about clustered Europeanization by using insights from a fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) and considering the European policies for growth and competitiveness (the so-called 'Europe2020' strategy). We assess whether and to what extent different aspects of the EU2020 strategy have influenced the National Reform Programmes (NRPs), i.e., the policy tools by which each member state put its own pro-competitive strategy into practice. We look at the NRPs adopted by the member states during three years in order to assess to which extent they are 'Europeanized'. By using fsQCA, we analyse the following conditions which can account for different levels of Europeanization of the national economic reforms: governmental and electoral stability; starting points referring to the targets for 2020; years passed after accession to the European Union; different levels of financial crisis in the moment when member states have adopted their own NRP.

Cárdenas, Julián. 2012. "Varieties of Corporate Networks: Network Analysis and fsQCA." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 53 (4):298-322.

Abstract: The present research analyzes national corporate interlock networks and their causal conditions. The objective is two-fold: 1) to specify types of corporate networks, and 2) to pinpoint the causal configurations that give rise to each type of corporate network. First, corporate networks on basis of interlocking directorates are analyzed and compared using social network analysis to empirically derive a typology. The results show two types of corporate networks: cohesive corporate networks which are based on unification, centralization and strength ties; and dispersed corporate networks which are characterized by fragmentation, decentralization and single ties. Second, combinations of causal conditions that explain the emergence of each type of corporate networks are identified using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Finally, avenues of research on corporate interlock networks are suggested.

Careja, Romana. 2011. "Paths to Policy Coherence to Create Market Economies in Central and Eastern Europe." International Political Science Review 32 (3):345-66.

Abstract: Policy coherence, understood as synergy between policies, has been found to facilitate development and economic growth. However, there is little research on the conditions in which it emerges. This article identifies different paths conducive to policy coherence in the process of transforming centralized economies of Central and Eastern Europe into market-driven ones. It shows that government characteristics with likely impact on the quality of policy-making, such as accountability and institutional constraints, are associated with coherent policies only in a limited number of cases. It also shows that governments that are not constrained and accountable, formulate coherent policies if they find themselves in contexts that do not pose constraints, or that offer strong incentives.

Castellano, José María. 2010. "Secondary Education and Broadband Diffusion: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Info 12 (6):121-38.

Abstract: Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the determinants of broadband diffusion, taking into account supply-side factors such as market entry regulation and demand-side factors such as secondary education attainment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper analyzes 27 countries from the European Union (EU) from 1996 to 2009 using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), which combines quantitative and qualitative methods. Findings: The main findings point out that there is one way for "innovator" adopters and "laggard" adopters in broadband diffusion, while there are few ways for the remaining adopters. Moreover, high entry regulation is associated more with "innovator" adopters, "early adopters" and "early majority adopters" in broadband diffusion, while medium and low entry regulations are associated more with "late majority" and "laggard" adopters in broadband diffusion. Social implications: This paper suggests that high secondary school attainment is a necessary factor for broadband innovator countries. By contrast, low income and low secondary school attainment are factors connected with late majority and laggard broadband adopters. Originality/value: At present, there is no other research about broadband diffusion or technology diffusion that uses this mixed approach. While the results may not be very conclusive, they will serve as an initial springboard for further research into more specific-variable studies.

Castillo Ortiz, Pablo José, and Iván Medina. 2016. "Paths to the Recognition of Homo-Parental Adoptive Rights in the EU-27: A QCA Analysis." Contemporary Politics 22 (1):40-56.

Abstract: Although the recognition of the adoptive rights of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) couples is a socially salient topic, cross-national variation regarding this issue has been largely underexplored in social science research. With the aid of configurational analysis, this article fills this gap and shows the conditions that explain the recognition of the adoptive rights of homosexual couples in the countries of the EU-27. It is argued that two different paths led to this outcome. All countries where adoptive rights were recognized had higher degrees of secularization and lower levels of social homophobia. In addition, in Northern European countries, the Protestant background and absence of conservative governments for a certain time period seemed to be the determinant. However, for the remaining European countries that recognized these rights, rising levels of gender equality appeared to have a more salient role.

Cebotari, Victor, and Maarten P. Vink. 2013. "A Configurational Analysis of Ethnic Protest in Europe." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 54 (4):298-324.

Abstract: This article analyzes the conditions under which ethnic minorities intensify or moderate their protest behavior. While this question has been previously asked, we find that prior studies tend to generalize explanations across a varied set of ethnic groups and assume that causal conditions can independently explain whether groups are more or less mobilized. By contrast, this study employs a technique - fuzzy-set analysis - that is geared toward matching comparable groups to specific analytical configurations of causal factors to explain the choice for strong and weak protest. The analysis draws on a sample of 29 ethnic minorities in Europe and uses three group and two contextual conditions inspired by Gurr's ethnopolitical conflict model to understand why some ethnic minorities protest more frequently than others. We find that two group-related factors have the strongest claim to being generalizable: while territorial concentration is a necessary condition for strong protest, national pride is a necessary condition for weak protest. The contextual factors of level of democracy and ethnic fractionalization, which are often emphasized in the literature, and the perceived political discrimination of a group, are neither necessary nor individually sufficient conditions for either strong or weak protest. Hence, they help understanding some cases, but not all, and only in combination with other conditions. Such causal complexity, inherent in the phenomenon of ethnic protest, underscores the need for a case-sensitive, yet comparative, approach.
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Chan, Steve. 2003. "Explaining War Termination: A Boolean Analysis of Causes." Journal of Peace Research 40 (1):49-66.

Abstract: An understanding of why states fight wars requires an understanding of why they end wars. These phenomena form interrelated parts of a larger process of interstate bargaining. Yet, compared to the research on the outbreak of wars, there has been much less attention paid to their termination. These conflicts end when the belligerents reach convergent expectations that they have more to gain or less to lose if they stop fighting than if they continue to do so. This article presents several factors hypothesized to hasten or delay this mutual recognition and, therefore, to shorten or prolong a conflict. Boolean algebra is applied to study the individual and joint effects of these factors on the duration of 23 interstate wars during 1945-92. The results show that short wars stem from different causal combinations, therefore suggesting the inadequacy of any monocausal explanation. Moreover, this analysis points to the importance of context-specific understanding because the same factors can have different effects on shortening war and different factors can have similar effects on this outcome under different circumstances. Contrary to the argument in favor of an incremental escalation of military pressure on an adversary, massive and intense fighting at the outset of a war has been nearly a necessary though insufficient condition for a quick ceasefire. This conclusion supports the view that private information inclines states to fight wars but the revelation of this information in the subsequent fighting puts them in a better position to reach a settlement.
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Chandra Balodi, Krishna, and Jaideep Prabhu. 2014. "Causal Recipes for High Performance." International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research 20 (6):542-61.

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare causal recipes for high performance among young Indian and UK firms in high-tech industries. Design/methodology/approach: The traditional configuration approach suggests using the leadership, strategy, structure, and environment domains to identify configurations. In response to calls to improve causal linkages, and drawing on work on start-ups' configurations, entrepreneurial orientation is used with these four domains to identify configurations. Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis is used to analyze data collected via questionnaires from 70 Indian and 21 UK young firms. Findings: In all five configurations identified in UK context, firms adopt high external integration, and employ inorganic development strategies, exhibit high internal integration, or do not operate in a highly competitive industry. These firms carve out niches, enjoy strong linkages with supply chain partners, and have strong enough reputations that their environment is not highly competitive. Although employees are told what to do, autonomy is provided on how to do it. Among the nine Indian configurations, a large number of managers with high-growth experience is absent in eight, high internal integration is lacking in six, and high external integration is missing in five. These firms employ alternative recipes for success, as discussed in the paper. Originality/value: Comparing configurations in the Indian and UK contexts, the paper highlights similarities and differences across configurations, and that founders devise alternate pathways to achieve high performance. It also notes changes in relationships among variables across configurations.

Chang, Chia-Wen, Ting-Hsiang Tseng, and Arch G. Woodside. 2013. "Configural Algorithms of Patient Satisfaction, Participation in Diagnostics, and Treatment Decisions' Influences on Hospital Loyalty." Journal of Services Marketing 27 (2):91-103.

Abstract: Purpose: This empirical study aims to explore sufficiency conditions for patient loyalty to a hospital. Design/methodology/approach: The study collected 645 self-administered questionnaires from patients in a major medical center in Taiwan and applied fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA) to explore the sufficiency conditions for patient loyalty. Findings: The findings support the conclusion that the three conditions (patient satisfaction, patient participation in the process of diagnosis, and patient participation in treatment decision-making) in combination are sufficient for high patient loyalty to the hospital but high patient satisfaction alone is insufficient. While the three conditions in configural algorithm are sufficient, this expression is not necessary, which means the findings do not reject possible alternative conditions for high patient loyalty. Research limitations/implications: The study applies a relatively new method, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA) to test the sufficiency proposition of the theory. This method enables researchers to focus on examining sufficient conditions without worrying about various confounding factors and informs this study's conclusion that patients exhibiting high scores in all three conditions mentioned above constitute a near-perfect subset of highly loyal patients. Hospitals thus should provide their satisfied patients opportunities to share a role in the process of diagnosis and treatment decision-making. Originality/value: Along with patient satisfaction, this study clearly identifies two important stages of patient participation (i.e., participation in the process of diagnosis and treatment decision-making) that are important in forming patient loyalty to a hospital. Prior studies do not present empirical evidence to this proposition.

Chang, Man-Ling, and Cheng-Feng Cheng. 2014. "How Balance Theory Explains High-Tech Professionals' Solutions of Enhancing Job Satisfaction." Journal of Business Research 67 (9):2008-18.

Abstract: R&D professionals in high-tech industries often face struggles between thework and family domains. Additionally, the job autonomy is an essential antecedent of being a professional, whereas a R&D manager determines the subordinates' job autonomy, helps mitigate their work-family conflict and contributes their innovativeness. Accordingly, the R&D employee, supervisor, job autonomy, and family which form a tetragonal-relationship system are the major entities in the R&D employee's cognitive structure. The R&D employee's and supervisor's perceptions about other entities are regarded as the connections among entities and stand for the concepts of leader-member exchange, self-determination (i.e., perceptions about job autonomy), managerial control (related to autonomy support), work-family conflict, and managerial work-family support. Although prior studies indicate individual influences of these concepts on the job satisfaction, they neglect the combined influences. This study applies the balance theory to explore how R&D professionals balance these connections in their cognitive structure for achieving the high job satisfaction. Among 32 possible combinations of factors, this study identifies four causal conditions for the high job satisfaction and indicates the best and worst conditions. The findings inform implications to manage R&D professionals.

Chappin, Maryse M. H., Bart Cambré, Patrick A. M. Vermeulen, and Rodrigo Lozano. 2015. "Internalizing Sustainable Practices: A Configurational Approach on Sustainable Forest Management of the Dutch Wood Trade and Timber Industry." Journal of Cleaner Production 107 (0):760-74.

Abstract: A number of environmental labels and certificates have been developed to inform consumers of the environmental impacts. This paper explored different configurations of institutional and organizational conditions for the internalization of sustainable practices. For the institutional conditions the level of institutional pressures were considered. For the organizational conditions the following elements were taken into account: 1) the timing of adoption; 2) the willingness to cannibalize existing capabilities and routines to incorporate institutional demands for sustainability; 3) the degree of implementation of these demands; 4) the internal representation of environmental concerns; and 5) the type of organization. The paper analyzed sustainable forestry practices in wood trade and timber factories in the Netherlands using a fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. From the analysis, three configurations were found: 1) concerned internalization, for early adopting wood trade companies; 2) forced internalization, for late adopting wood trade companies; and 3) lagged internalization, for late adopting timber factories. The configurations revealed that important conditions for explaining internalization of sustainable practices are high levels of implementation and high levels of willingness to cannibalize. The findings reaffirm the relevance of institutional and organizational conditions in explaining the internalization of environmental friendly practices. They also showed that the interplay between a firm's internal and external environments influence the internalization of environmental practices. The results imply that practice internalization is more subtle than previously understood in the literature.

Chatterley, Christie, Amy Javernick-Will, Karl Linden, Kawser Alam, Laure Bottinelli, and Mohini Venkatesh. 2014. "A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Well-Managed School Sanitation in Bangladesh." BMC Public Health 14 (6):1-14.

Abstract: Background: Continued management of sanitation and hygiene services, post-intervention, is a global challenge, particularly in the school-setting. This situation threatens anticipated impacts of school sanitation and hygiene investments. To improve programming and policies, and increase the effectiveness of limited development resources, we seek to understand how and why some schools have well-managed sanitation post-intervention, while others do not. Methods: Based on in-depth qualitative data from 16 case schools in Meherpur, Bangladesh, we employ fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions, or combinations of conditions (referred to as pathways), that lead to either well-managed or poorly managed school sanitation. We include posited sustainability determinants from the literature and factors that emerged from the cases themselves in the analysis. Results: We identified three distinct pathways sufficient to support well-managed services, providing multiple options for how well-managed school sanitation could be encouraged. Two of these are applicable to both government and non-government schools: (1) quality construction, financial community support and a champion; and (2) quality construction, financial government support, a maintenance plan and school management committee involvement. On-going financial support for operations and maintenance was identified as a necessary condition for continued service management, which was absent from many schools with poorly managed services. However, financial support was insufficient alone and other conditions are needed in conjunction, including quality construction and incentivizing conditions, such as school management committee involvement in sanitation specifically, a sanitation champion, and/or one teacher clearly responsible for toilet maintenance. Surprisingly, the number of students per toilet (ranging from 18-95 students) and toilet age (ranging from 8-32 months) had no significant effect on sanitation conditions. Conclusions: Findings corroborate those from a similar study in Belize, and comparison suggests the need for financial community support and the possibly tenuous reliance on local champions in the absence of adequate government support for operations and maintenance. Sub-determinants to the necessary conditions are also discussed which have implications for school sanitation in Bangladesh and may have broader relevance for other low-income countries though further research is needed.
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Chatterley, Christie, Karl G. Linden, and Amy Javernick-Will. 2013. "Identifying Pathways to Continued Maintenance of School Sanitation in Belize." Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 3 (3):411-22.

Abstract: Despite an increasing focus on school-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in less-developed countries, we lack an understanding of what combinations of conditions are sufficient for their continued maintenance post-implementation. We use a novel method, qualitative comparative analysis, to determine what pathways lead to well-maintained school toilets, as an indicator of continued maintenance of WASH services. Results from 15 case schools in Belize reveal five pathways to well-maintained school sanitation, and three pathways to poorly maintained services. Common conditions in the pathways to well-maintained toilets include local involvement upfront, quality construction, and the presence of a local champion; while conditions common in the pathways to poorly maintained toilets include the absence of the aforementioned conditions, in addition to vandalism and a lack of community support for maintenance. The familiarity of the technology is as common in the pathways to well-maintained toilets as poorly maintained toilets, suggesting that though technology choice is important, quality construction and social conditions may have a stronger influence on maintenance. Qualitative information is presented to support further discussion of the six conditions, including factors linked to their presence that may support improvements in Belize and have implications for school WASH services in other low-income settings.
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Cheng, Cheng-Feng, Man-Ling Chang, and Chu-Shiu Li. 2013. "Configural paths to successful product innovation." Journal of Business Research 66 (12):2561-73.

Abstract: This study offers an integrated framework involving antecedent paths to successful product innovation. The study explores conditional models leading to high product-innovation performance using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Based on relevant literature, this study categorizes relevant antecedents including organization-related, project-related, process-related, product-related, and market-related categories, and the newness of product innovation, into causal recipes. To assess the applicability of this conceptual model, researchers collected data from R&D managers and members of high-tech firms in Taiwan. The study includes dividing sampled firms into three groups according to the extent of within-firm agreement on responses by executives to questions about antecedents (in surveys that they answered independently). The findings include model routes to high product-innovation performance for each group. The findings indicate that no one simple antecedent is sufficient or necessary for high performance; no one path is necessary for high performance. However, there is only one avenue to successful product innovation for low-agreement cases. This study also finds some common rules behind these paths across groups. The strategy implication is to think through alternative paths and not key success factors for achieving high product-innovation performance.

Christmann, Anna. 2010. "Damoklesschwert Referendum? Die indirekte Wirkung ausgebauter Volksrechte auf die Rechte religiöser Minderheiten." Swiss Political Science Review 16 (1):1-41.

Abstract: Die indirekte Wirkung der Volksrechte auf den parlamentarischen Prozess bleibt gerade im Bereich der Minderheitenrechte meist unberücksichtigt. Anhand der Analyse von Anerkennungsprozessen für religiöse Minderheiten in den Schweizer Kantonen soll ein Beitrag zur Schliessung dieser Lücke geleistet werden. Es wird argumentiert, dass Parlamente prinzipiell minderheitenfreundlicher entscheiden als das Volk, wenn es sich um schlecht integrierte Minderheiten handelt - drohende Referenden können diesen Effekt jedoch verringern. Die systematische Analyse der entsprechenden Parlamentsprozesse mittels einer Fuzzy Set-QCA zeigt auf, dass Minderheitenrechte eher innerhalb von Totalrevisionen von Verfassungen umgesetzt werden, in denen keine Debatte über eine mögliche Ablehnung durch das Volk geführt wurde. Restriktive Regelungen entstehen hingegen, wenn diese Gefahr der direkten Demokratie thematisiert wurde. Zudem spielt der Islam eine besondere Rolle - allerdings führt er nur dann zu restriktiveren Regelungen, wenn befürchtet wird, dass eine Öffnung gegenüber Muslimen die Ablehnung der Vorlage durch das Volk zur Folge haben könnte.
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Chuang, Emmeline, Janette Dill, Jennifer Craft Morgan, and Thomas R. Konrad. 2012. "A Configurational Approach to the Relationship between High-Performance Work Practices and Frontline Health Care Worker Outcomes." Health Services Research 47 (4):1460-81.

Abstract: Objective: To identify high-performance work practices (HPWP) associated with high frontline health care worker (FLW) job satisfaction and perceived quality of care. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data from 661 FLWs in 13 large health care employers were collected between 2007 and 2008 and analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. Principal Findings: Supervisor support and team-based work practices were identified as necessary for high job satisfaction and high quality of care but not sufficient to achieve these outcomes unless implemented in tandem with other HPWP. Several configurations of HPWP were associated with either high job satisfaction or high quality of care. However, only one configuration of HPWP was sufficient for both: the combination of supervisor support, performance-based incentives, team-based work, and flexible work. These findings were consistent even after controlling for FLW demographics and employer type. Additional research is needed to clarify whether HPWP have differential effects on quality of care in direct care versus administrative workers. Conclusions: High-performance work practices that integrate FLWs in health care teams and provide FLWs with opportunities for participative decision making can positively influence job satisfaction and perceived quality of care, but only when implemented as bundles of complementary policies and practices.

Chung, Chi-Nien. 2001. "Markets, Culture and Institutions: The Emergence of Large Business Groups in Taiwan, 1950s-1970s." Journal of Management Studies 38 (5):719-45.

Abstract: Business groups are a special type of enterprise system existing in almost every market economy. Member firms do not operate as isolated units in the markets but have institutionalized relationships with each other and work coherently as an entity. Groups play a central role in economies in which they operate. For Taiwan, the largest 100 groups produced one third of the GNP in the past 20 years. Why does this organizational form exist in the first place? This paper reviews three relevant theories, market-centred theories, culturalist perspective, and the institutional approach, and employs the data of 150 Taiwanese groups for the answer. The market-centred theories and the institutional arguments are examined statistically and the latter is supported by the data. Following this evidence, the Boolean comparison of group firms with non-group firms confirms that lacking a coherent core in ownership and management makes firms unable to respond to institutional incentives promptly. Finally, the structure of family ownership network in business groups refutes the cultural perspective which argues that the equal inheritance pattern of family property drives entrepreneurs to establish separate firms rather than single hierarchies. While both markets and culture play a distinct part in the story, it is regulatory institutions that lead to group formation.

Clément, Caty. 2004. "Un Modèle commun d'Effondrement de l'État? Une AQQC du Liban, de la Somalie et de l'ex-Yougoslavie." Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée 11 (1):35-50.

Abstract: L'objectif de cette étude est d'analyser le processus d'effondrement des États et de démontrer l'existence d'un modèle causal minimal commun, soit l'ensemble des conditions minimales nécessaires à l'effondrement de l'État. Trois États (le Liban, la Somalie et l'ex-Yougoslavie) ont été sélectionnés car bien qu'étant très différents (cas différents), ils se sont tous effondrés (résultats similaires). En comparant ces trois types d'États, nous tenterons de mettre en évidence le rôle crucial de certaines variables. L'approche traditionnelle ayant souvent procédé par l'étude de cas spécifiques, aucun modèle général n'a jusqu'ici été développé. L'intérêt de la méthode AQQC réside en ce qu'elle fournit une méthode standardisée d'analyse de données qualitatives. Le but de cette recherche n'est donc pas de tester, vérifier, contredire, ou développer des théories existantes, mais bien de proposer un schéma théorique là où il y en a peu.

Cornell, Stephen, and Joseph P. Kalt. 2000. "Where's the Glue? Institutional and Cultural Foundations of American Indian Economic Development." Journal of Socio-Economics 29 (5):443-70.

Abstract: Since the mid-1970s, the hundreds of American Indian reservations in the United States have been afforded substantial powers of self-government - from law enforcement and taxation to environmental and business regulation. The result has been a set of diverse efforts to overcome widespread poverty, with equally diverse outcomes. This study reports the results of research into the sources of development success during the "take-off" stage of self-government. Little evidence is found to support hypotheses that resource or human capital endowments hold keys to launching Indian economies. Instead, tribal constitutional forms appear to be make-or-break keys to development. Development takes hold when these forms provide for separations of powers and when their structures match indigenous norms of political legitimacy.

Coulter, Kristine, and David S. Meyer. 2015. "High Profile Rape Trials and Policy Advocacy." Journal of Public Policy 35 (1):35-61.

Abstract: Activists try to use high profile trials to advance their political agendas, and we want to understand why they occasionally succeed in promoting policy reforms. We begin by reviewing literature on agenda setting and social problem construction, conceptualising high profile trials as "focusing events" that offer activists a chance to advance their definitions and remedies for particular social problems. We next outline the feminist movement against sexual violence as a useful example of activists trying to use trials for their own political purposes. Using events data from the New York Times and the secondary treatment of 13 high profile trials from 1960 to 1997, we examine factors that help or hinder activists' efforts to use a trial to forward their cause. We see that both the nature of the trial and the political context surrounding it affect the likelihood that a movement gains control of its meaning and secures policy reform.

Coverdill, James E., and William Finlay. 1995. "Understanding Mills Via Mill-Type Methods: An Application of Qualitative Comparative Analysis to a Study of Labor Management in Southern Textile Manufacturing." Qualitative Sociology 18 (4):457.

Abstract: A number of recent writers have advocated a computer-based approach to the analysis of qualitative data that leans on John Stuart Mill's method of agreement and the indirect method of difference. Those discussions, however remain fairly abstract and provide little insight into how analyses based on Mill-type methods unfold and their relative costs and benefits. In this paper we describe the logic and use of one prominent Mill-type software program called QCA (Qualitative Comparative Analysis) in the context of an analysis of evidence drawn from twenty-two interviews with managers in textile plants. Our substantive aim is to understand labor-management practices in Southern textile manufacturing plants; our methodological aim is to illustrate the strength sand weaknesses of the Mill-type logic in action.
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Cragun, Deborah, Rita D. DeBate, Susan T. Vadaparampil, Julie Baldwin, Heather Hampel, and Tuya Pal. 2014. "Comparing Universal Lynch Syndrome Tumor-Screening Programs to Evaluate Associations between Implementation Strategies and Patient Follow-Through." Genetics in Medicine 16 (10):773-82.

Abstract: Purpose: Universal tumor screening (UTS) for all colorectal cancer patients can improve the identification of Lynch syndrome, the most common cause of hereditary colorectal cancer. This multiple-case study explored how variability in UTS procedures influenced patient follow-through (PF) with germ-line testing after a screen-positive result. Methods: Data were obtained through Web-based surveys and telephone interviews with institutional informants. Institutions were categorized as Low-PF (?10% underwent germ-line testing), Medium-PF (11-40%), or High-PF (>40%). To identify implementation procedures (i.e., conditions) unique to High-PF institutions, qualitative comparative analysis was performed. Results: Twenty-one informants from 15 institutions completed surveys and/or interviews. Conditions present among all five High-PF institutions included the following: (i) disclosure of screen-positive results to patients by genetic counselors; and (ii) genetic counselors either facilitate physician referrals to genetics professionals or eliminate the need for referrals. Although both of these High-PF conditions were present among two Medium-PF institutions, automatic reflex testing was lacking and difficulty contacting screen-positive patients was a barrier. The three remaining Medium-PF and five Low-PF institutions lacked the conditions found in High-PF institutions. Conclusion: Methods for streamlining UTS procedures, incorporating a high level of involvement of genetic counselors in tracking and communication of results and in reducing barriers to patient contact, are reviewed within a broader discussion on maximizing the effectiveness and public health impact of UTS.
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Crawford, Seth. 2012. "What is the Energy Policy-Planning Network and Who Dominates it? A Network and QCA Analysis of Leading Energy Firms and Organizations." Energy Policy 45 (0):430-9.

Abstract: This study examines the structure of the energy industry and the energy policy-planning network (EPPN). I use cross-sectional director interlocks from 2002 to examine the social networks amongst a sample of the largest energy firms, between these firms and the EPPN, and to calculate relative network centrality measures for the firms. I then use qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to isolate specific combinations of energy firm attributes that are associated with network position. I find that the energy industry has several key intra-firm interlocks that link dominant companies to each other and that the industry is well represented on the boards of EPPN organizations. Additionally, several dominant energy firms provide links between ultra-conservative and moderate policy development organizations. Finally, QCA models suggest that firms with many employees, high revenue, and who produce oil are most likely to hold prominent positions in the EPPN - though above average political campaign contributions offer an alternative path into the network.

Cress, Daniel M., and David A. Snow. 1996. "Mobilization at the Margins: Resources, Benefactors, and the Viability of Homeless Social Movement Organizations." American Sociological Review 61 (6):1089-109.

Abstract: For over two decades, resources have been assumed to be a fundamental determinant of the course and character of social movement organizations (SMOs) and their activities. Yet surprisingly little research evaluates this taken-for-granted assumption. Using data from ethnographic fieldwork on 15 homeless SMOs in eight U.S. cities, we construct an empirically grounded typology of resources and assess the combinations of resources necessary for the viability of homeless SMOs. We then examine the sources of support for these organizations, highlighting the influence of benefactor organizations on SMO viability and tactics. Employing qualitative comparative analysis, we identify three resource configurations among the viable SMOs and find that certain resource types contributed more than others to viability. Support from benefactors also ensured viability of these organizations without moderating their tactics. We explain the implications of these findings for understanding the roles that resources and sponsorship or patronage play in the careers of SMOs and the relevance of resources, sponsorship, and organization to social movements of the poor.
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Cress, Daniel M., and David A. Snow. 2000. "The Outcomes of Homeless Mobilization: The Influence of Organization, Disruption, Political Mediation, and Framing." American Journal of Sociology 105 (4):1063-104.

Abstract: This article contributes to a more systematic understanding of movement outcomes by analyzing how organizational, tactical, political, and framing variables interact and combine to account for differences in the outcomes attained by 15 homeless social movement organizations (SMOs) active in eight U.S. cities. Using qualitative comparative analysis to assess ethnographically derived data on the 15 SMOs, the study highlights the importance of organizational viability and the rhetorical quality of diagnostic and prognostic frames for securing outcomes while identifying a contingent relationship between tactics and political environment. The analysis suggests that there are multiple pathways leading to movement outcome attainment, and therefore unidimensional rather than combinatorial and interactive approaches are misguided.
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Crilly, Donal. 2011. "Predicting Stakeholder Orientation in the Multinational Enterprise: A Mid-Range Theory." Journal of International Business Studies 42 (5):694-717.

Abstract: As the reach of corporations increasingly extends across borders, a key research question is whether overseas subsidiaries adopt a shareholder-centric orientation, centered on maximizing shareholder wealth, or a stakeholder-centric orientation, centered on creating value for a broader range of stakeholders. Existing theories, addressing the corporate level of analysis, focus on forces exogenous to the firm: local resource pressures, and institutional norms. Using a combination of induction and fuzzy-set analysis, I draw on documentary evidence and 298 interviews with managers and stakeholders to build theory about the conditions that shape subsidiaries' stakeholder orientations. Two major findings emerge. First, although theory emphasizes external stakeholders' control over resources, internal control through the corporate parent can crowd out the voices of local stakeholders. Second, although institutional theory proposes isomorphism with local norms and standards, some corporations are subject to scrutiny by global stakeholders, and their subsidiaries face higher requirements for social engagement than their peers. These findings are the foundation of a mid-range theory that combines conventional explanations, focused on environmental factors, and an internal-stakeholder perspective, based around the roles of the parent corporation as owner and resource provider, to predict stakeholder orientation.

Crilly, Donal, Maurizio Zollo, and Morten T. Hansen. 2012. "Faking It or Muddling Through? Understanding Decoupling in Response to Stakeholder Pressures." Academy of Management Journal 55 (6):1429-48.

Abstract: We advance a multilevel argument that challenges and qualifies existing explanations of firms' responses to institutional pressures. In an in-depth study of 17 multinational corporations involving 359 interviews with internal and external actors, we find that firms facing identical pressures decouple policy from practice in different ways and for different reasons. When firms' responses are generated locally, without firmwide coordination, these responses can be either intentional or emergent. In the presence of information asymmetry between firms and their stakeholders, we find that managers' responses are intentional ("faking it") and depend on how they perceive their interests. In the presence of competing stakeholder expectations, responses are emergent ("muddling through") and depend on the degree of consensus among managers in their readings of the environment. These findings suggest that theories of decoupling need to be broadened to include the role of "muddling through" and the interplay of internal managerial and external stakeholder dynamics.
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Crona, B. I., T. Van Holt, M. Petersson, T. M. Daw, and E. Buchary. 2015. "Using Social-Ecological Syndromes to Understand Impacts of International Seafood Trade on Small-Scale Fisheries." Global Environmental Change 35:162-75.

Abstract: Globalization has increased the speed and flow of people, information, and commodities across space, integrating markets and increasing interdependence of geographically dispersed places worldwide. Places historically driven by largely local forces and market demands are now increasingly affected by drivers at multiple scales. Trade is particularly important in driving these changes and more fish is now exported to international markets than ever before. When small-scale fisheries are integrated into global markets, local social-ecological systems change with potentially both positive and negative impacts on livelihoods, economics and ecology, but few studies systematically investigate how and why the outcomes of market integration vary from case to case. This paper systematically assesses multiple (social, ecological, economic and institutional) local effects of market integration in cases around the world by drawing on the global environmental change syndromes approach. Furthermore, we examine the factors contributing to the syndromes observed. Our analysis identifies three distinct social-ecological syndromes associated with international seafood trade. Results suggest that the presence of strong and well-enforced institutions is the principal factor behind the syndrome characterized by sustained fish stocks, while a combination of weak institutions, patron-client relationships, high demand from China and highly vulnerable target species explain the other two syndromes distinguished by declining stocks, conflict and debt among fishers. A key finding is that the factors emerging as important for explaining the different syndromes derive from different scales (e.g. local market structures vs distant market characteristics), indicating a need for multi-level governance approaches to deal with the effects of market integration. Furthermore, the meta-analysis shows that each syndrome encompasses fisheries from multiple continents. This suggests that the increasingly global nature of the seafood trade appears to be driving local dynamics by creating similar conditions for vulnerabilities in localities around the world, lending support to the notion of tele-connectivity across geographic space.

Crowley, Martha. 2014. "Class, Control, and Relational Indignity: Labor Process Foundations for Workplace Humiliation, Conflict, and Shame." American Behavioral Scientist 58 (3):416-34.

Abstract: This article investigates how complex combinations of control contribute to class variations in the experience of work through their impacts on relational aspects of workplace dignity. Analysis of content-coded data on 154 work groups suggests that control structures vary by class and have significant implications for levels of abuse and shame, but exert little direct impact on hostility toward management or coworker conflict. Abusive treatment rooted in coercion, however, generates hostility toward management and intensifies feelings of shame associated with coercive control. Contrary to expectations, a pattern of abuse does not tend to generate coworker conflict. Reimmersion in the case studies suggests that when it does, the cause is often favoritism - a correlate of abuse.

Crowley, Martha. 2013. "Gender, the Labor Process and Dignity at Work." Social Forces 91 (4):1209-38.

Abstract: This study brings together gender inequality and labor process research to investigate how divergent control structures generate inequality in work experiences for women and men. Content-coded data on 155 work groups are analyzed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis to identify combinations of control techniques encountered by female and male work groups and their relationship to outcomes measuring workplace dignity. Results suggest that male work groups more often encounter persuasive "bundles" of control that enhance autonomy, creativity, meaningfulness and satisfaction, while female work groups confront more coercive arrangements, especially direct supervision, that erode these and other foundations of dignity at work. I conclude with implications of these findings relative to understandings of the labor process, workplace sex segregation and forms of inequality not so easily quantified in dominant approaches to stratification.

Crowley, Martha. 2012. "Control and Dignity in Professional, Manual and Service-Sector Employment." Organization Studies 33 (10):1383-406.

Abstract: This study investigates implications of complex control combinations applied in manual, service and professional occupations for expressive, behavioral and emotional aspects of workplace dignity. Qualitative comparative analyses of 154 content-coded workplace ethnographies suggest that professionals encounter persuasive 'bundles' of control that enhance expressive and behavioral manifestations of dignity as well as pride. However, these benefits come at the expense of high levels of stress associated with internal drives and externally driven normative orientations and behaviors. Workers in manual and service occupations confront a broader array of approaches, including coercive control combinations that erode pride and effort by dehumanizing workers and inviting abuse. Furthermore, the benefits of persuasive control combinations in these settings are mitigated by supplementary constraints, which promote maintenance of a protective distance from employers that may also help to limit stress. The paper concludes with organizational strategies for curbing abuse in coercive manual and service environments and a discussion of changes necessary to address the problem of stress in the professions.

Da Roit, Barbara, Marcel Hoogenboom, and Bernhard Weicht. 2015. "The Gender Informal Care Gap." European Societies 17 (2):199-218.

Abstract: This article investigates the relationship between the 'gender informal care gap' - the relative contributions of women to informal care for non-co-resident relatives and other members of social networks, compared to men - and public care policies, level of care needs, labour market position and gendered care attitudes. Since the literature suggests that none of these factors alone can explain the gender informal care gap, we develop a model based on fuzzy-set/qualitative comparative analysis in order to identify patterns in the relationship between the factors. The analysis conducted at the macro-national level in 13 European countries, suggests that at the macro-level, the availability of public care services is crucial to understanding the gender informal care gap, while women's labour market position, the presence or absence of gendered care attitudes and the level of care needs play no or a relatively minor role.
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Da Roit, Barbara, and Bernhard Weicht. 2013. "Migrant Care Work and Care, Migration and Employment Regimes: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis." Journal of European Social Policy 23 (5):469-86.

Abstract: Migrant care work has emerged as an increasingly important solution to the challenges of growing eldercare needs in both the private and the public sphere. Migrant workers are employed in domestic services in Southern European and in some continental European countries, and they are a significant part of the work force in the formal care sector in many national contexts. The article provides an exploratory cross-country analysis of the phenomenon. After assessing the extent of migrant care work based on individually contracted workers in the domestic sector vs. organization-based care workers in nine European welfare states, it investigates which conditions sustain specific national patterns. Using fuzzy-set analysis the article demonstrates how the intersection of care, migration and employment regimes shapes different patterns of migrant care work.
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Damonte, Alessia. 2014. "Policy Tools for Green Growth in the EU15: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Environmental Politics 23 (1):18-40.

Abstract: Mainstream analyses have often understood environmental effectiveness as a consequence of the shape of interests and policymaking, and have tested their models through statistical techniques. Results have, however, proved quite erratic. It is argued that these weaknesses reflect a misconception about causality, thus highlighting the need for a shift in both model and method. A different model is therefore developed that explains effectiveness through policy tools and ideas. The model is then applied to the performances of the EU15 member states in mid-2000s, and assessed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Cases are polarised around two classic cleavages ('environmentalists' vs. 'productivists', and 'pro-marketers' vs. 'protectionists'), but give evidence that all the related tool mixes are able to deliver - while the relevant difference between leaders and laggards lies in the use of evaluation devices.

Dancy, Geoff, and Eric Wiebelhaus-Brahm. 2015. "Timing, Sequencing, and Transitional Justice Impact: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Latin America." Human Rights Review 16 (4):321-42.

Abstract: Transitional justice (TJ) scholars are increasingly concerned with measuring the impact of transitional justice initiatives. Scholars often assume that TJ mechanisms must be properly designed and ordered to achieve lasting effect, but the impact of TJ timing and sequencing has attracted relatively little theoretical or empirical attention. Focusing on Latin America, this article explores variation within the region as to when TJ occurs and the order in which mechanisms are implemented. We utilize qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to assess the impact of TJ timing and sequencing on democratic development.We find little evidence for path dependency owing to the chronological order of mechanisms. We do find, however, that amnesties and trials approach a sufficient condition for democratic consolidation in Latin America; trials, however, come closest to being a necessary condition for successful democratic consolidation.

Dardanelli, Paolo. 2012. "Europeanization and the Unravelling of Belgium: A Comparative Analysis of Party Strategies." Acta Politica 47 (2):181-209.

Abstract: Research on Europeanization has greatly deepened our understanding of the domestic impact of European integration but has largely neglected the question of the extent to which it has influenced domestic politics in relation to state reform. The article addresses this question by investigating the case of Belgium, which has experienced the deepest process of state reform and at the same time has been the most exposed to Europeanization. It explores the connections between the two through a qualitative comparative analysis of the degree to which political parties have exploited the European dimension in their rhetorical strategies on state reform, with focus on three key time points. The results paint a contrasting picture. On the one hand, the degree of Europeanization has been limited at each point in time and largely stable over time. On the other hand, the VU/N-VA stands out as a major exception for its consistent - and growing - exploitation of the European dimension. The analysis shows that constitutional preferences, importance of the constitutional question and attitudes to integration are the key factors explaining the patterns observed. These findings call for deeper theorization of the domestic impact of integration and point to avenues for further comparative analysis.
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Dardanelli, Paolo. 2014. "European Integration, Party Strategies, and State Restructuring: A Comparative Analysis." European Political Science Review 6 (2):213-36.

Abstract: To what extent and in what way does European integration fuel state restructuring? This is a long-standing but still not a fully answered question. While the theoretical literature suggests a positive link between the two, previous empirical studies have reached contrasting conclusions. The article offers an alternative testing of the proposition, centred on the role of party strategies as a causal mechanism, analysed across space and time. On the cross-sectional axis, it focusses on parties in Flanders and Wallonia (Belgium), Lombardy and Sicily (Italy), Catalonia and Andalusia (Spain), and Scotland and Wales (United Kingdom). On the cross-temporal axis, it focuses on four critical junctures connecting integration and state restructuring. It analyses the degree to which 'Europe' has been strategically used in connection to state restructuring and which conditions have been necessary and/or sufficient to that outcome. The analysis has been conducted on the basis of a Qualitative Comparative Analysis methodology. Five main results emerge: (1) overall, parties have generally exploited 'Europe' in connection with state restructuring to a limited extent only but in a few cases exploitation has been very intense and intimately linked to strategic turning points; (2) 'Europe' has overwhelmingly been used to support state restructuring; (3) the most intense use has been made by regional parties with a secessionist position and positive attitude to the EU; (4) 'use of Europe' is a product of a complex conjunctural effect of several conditions; (5) it has increased over time but is not a linear product of integration, a sharp drop can be observed between the two most recent time points. These findings show that European integration can indeed exercise causal influence upon state restructuring via party strategies but that this is highly contingent on the complex interaction of multiple factors.

Davidsson, Johan Bo, and Patrick Emmenegger. 2013. "Defending the Organisation, not the Members: Unions and the Reform of Job Security Legislation in Western Europe." European Journal of Political Research 52 (3):339-63.

Abstract: European labour markets are often described as rigid with comparatively high levels of job protection that do not allow for the flexible adjustment of employment to economic fluctuations. This interpretation overlooks important sources of flexibility, however. Research has shown that recent labour market policy reforms have allowed for the creation of two-tier labour markets consisting of insiders in standard employment relationships and outsiders in non-standard employment. This outcome has typically been explained by pointing to the representational interests of unions or social-democratic parties. It has been argued that rather than protecting all labour market participants, unions and social-democratic parties focus on the interests of their members and their core constituency, respectively, most of whom are in standard employment relationships. In contrast, it is argued here that unions' institutional power resources are the crucial variable explaining this outcome. In difficult economic times, when unions are asked to make concessions, they will assent to labour market reforms, but only to those that do not fundamentally threaten to undermine their organisational interests. In the context of job security legislation, this means that unions defend the protection of permanent contracts while they compromise on the regulation of temporary employment. This 'second best solution' allows them to protect their organisational interests, both by retaining their institutional role in the administration of dismissals and by living up to their institutional role as one of the organisations responsible for the direction of labour market policy reform. Using fsQCA this article shows that unions' institutional power resources are more apt to explain the observed two-tier reform pattern than the unions' or the social-democratic parties' representational interests.
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de Villiers, Rouxelle. 2015. "Consumer Brand Enmeshment: Typography and Complexity Modeling of Consumer Brand Engagement and Brand Loyalty Enactments." Journal of Business Research 68 (9):1953-63.

Abstract: The study here presents a revolutionary new perspective in the consumer brand engagement (CBE) literature. The models advance a radically enhanced CBE and customer loyalty theory, grounded in complexity and sense-making theories. It describes how the use of set theoretic models and asymmetric analytics using Boolean algebra, rather than normative matrix algebra and symmetric analytics provide the means for testing major principles of complexity theory in CBE and presents a thought experiment of complexity theory tenets that provides alternative logic of asymmetric testing of variables affecting positive or negative consumer behavior. Aided by various graphics and complex multi-dimensional property space models, thought experiments, evidenced by netnographic cases, consumer brand enmeshment (CBEM) theory offers a reality-based expansion of consumers' responses to brand inter-actions and delivers a set of complex recipes that is likely to lead to a variety of opposable consumer brand inter-actions and brand enmeshments that simultaneously differ in direction and intensity.

Del Biondo, Karen. 2015. "Donor Interests or Developmental Performance? Explaining Sanctions in EU Democracy Promotion in sub-Saharan Africa." World Development 75 (0):74-84.

Abstract: This article investigates why sanctions are applied unevenly in EU democracy promotion in Africa. Given the increased attention on good performers in development cooperation, we assume that not only strategic allies but also good development performers will be shielded from strong sanctions. This thesis is tested with a fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis of 17 cases of violations of democratic principles and human rights in nine sub-Saharan African countries in 2000-11. The QCA confirms that sanctions are taken in the absence of donor interests and developmental performance, and are not taken in the presence of donor interests and developmental performance.

Delhi, Venkata Santosh Kumar, Ashwin Mahalingam, and Seshanka Palukuri. 2012. "Governance Issues in BOT based PPP Infrastructure Projects in India." Built Environment Project and Asset Management 2 (2):234-49.

Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the combinations of economic, normative, reputational and cognitive mechanisms that can prevent post-award governance challenges on build-operate-transfer (BOT) projects in India. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses an empirical, case-study based methodology to collect data and analyzes the cases through the use of the qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) technique. The paper first identifies and classifies the various kinds of governance challenges and preventive mechanisms in BOT projects based on the extant literature. Empirical evidence on 11 BOT projects in India is gathered and QCA is employed to unearth the linkages between specific governance mechanisms and post-award challenges on these projects. Findings: Project governance issues were identified across two dominant interfaces - one between the public and private sector and the other between the project and the societal stakeholders. Governance mechanisms based on providing shared incentives combined with the capacity to administer projects are effective in combating governance challenges across the public-private sector interface. Cognitive mechanisms which make the project more accountable to the societal stakeholders are most effective across the project-stakeholder interface. Research limitations/implications: These findings can be validated on larger data sets, across geographies, sectors and variety of PPP projects - currently the authors have only studied the BOT variant of PPPs. Practical implications: The authors' "contingency" approach to governance can help decision makers select specific governance mechanisms based on a project's structure and risk profile to better ensure successful delivery of a BOT project's objectives. Originality/value: Post-award governance of PPP projects is a theme that has received comparatively little attention in the extant literature. Further, while post-award issues as well as governance mechanisms have been separately identified, very little work exists that links these two sets of constructs. This paper seeks to contribute to knowledge in this area by proposing some preliminary findings on the link between post-award issues and governance mechanisms. In addition, the paper employs an innovative technique called QCA to analyze the case-study data.

Delreux, Tom. 2009. "The EU Negotiates Multilateral Environmental Agreements: Explaining the Agent's Discretion." Journal of European Public Policy 16 (5):719-37.

Abstract: Starting from principal-agent theory, this article analyses the conditions under which an EU negotiator enjoys a particular degree of discretion vis-à-vis the member states during international environmental negotiations. A qualitative comparative analysis of eight EU decision-making processes with regard to international negotiations leading to a multilateral environmental agreement indicates that the compellingness of the international negotiations explains the occurrence of discretion. However, the international compellingness does not provide explanatory power to understand the particular degree of discretion. To understand when an EU negotiator enjoys a high degree of discretion, variables such as preference distributions, information asymmetries and institutional density need to be taken into account.

Di Lucia, Lorenzo, and Annica Kronsell. 2010. "The Willing, the Unwilling and the Unable - Explaining Implementation of the EU Biofuels Directive." Journal of European Public Policy 17 (4):545-63.

Abstract: In this article we test current knowledge about policy implementation in multilevel governance systems and focus on the debated case of transport biofuels (EU Directive 2003/30/EC). We probe a set of hypotheses in a qualitative comparative analysis, offering a systematic comparison of 10 member states between 2003 and 2006. The findings show that implementation of the EU biofuels policy is a complex phenomenon where combinations of causal conditions, and not single conditions, produce the outcome. Implementation is more likely when three favourable conditions are present, when policy frames and content between EU and national levels match, when a consensual policy style is used and the most important actors are included. These findings are in agreement with previous studies. Non-implementation, on the other hand, is explained by a dichotomy between member states unable to implement because they lack capacity and those member states unwilling to implement even if they can.

Dill, Janette S., Emmeline Chuang, and Jennifer C. Morgan. 2014. "Healthcare Organization-Education Partnerships and Career Ladder Programs for Health Care Workers." Social Science & Medicine 122 (0):63-71.

Abstract: Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization.

Dixon, Marc, Vincent J. Roscigno, and Randy Hodson. 2004. "Unions, Solidarity, and Striking." Social Forces 83 (1):3-33.

Abstract: Organizational resources and group solidarity are central foci in literature on social movements generally and worker insurgency specifically. Research, however, seldom deals with both simultaneously and their potential interrelations. In this article, we examine the complex relationships between union organization and worker solidarity relative to strike action. We draw on a data set of 133 content-coded workplace ethnographies and use a combination of qualitative comparative analysis and more standard statistical techniques. Consistent with expectations, results suggest union presence and worker solidarity, in and of themselves, have little meaningful association with strikes. Rather, it is their co-presence that bolsters strike likelihood. Conversely, a lack of union presence in combination with a lack of collective mobilization history diminishes overall strike potential. We conclude by discussing the implications of our argument and findings for more general social movement perspectives as well as prior work dealing specifically with unions, solidarity, and collective resistance.

Dong, Bingying, Ling Zhu, Kevin Li, and Meifeng Luo. 2015. "Acceptance of the International Compensation Regime for Tanker Oil Pollution - And its Implications for China." Marine Policy 61 (0):179-86.

Abstract: The international compensation regime for tanker oil pollution has been successful in providing adequate and prompt compensation to pollution victims in its member states. Nevertheless, the attitudes of different countries toward acceptance of this regime have varied considerably. This paper aims to explain three main factors in the acceptance of the regime, including: (1) The level of economic development; (2) the risk of exposure to tanker oil spills; and (3) the financial burden associated with adherence to the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC). Using both fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis and an Ordered Probit model, this study found two patterns causing upper-middle and high income countries to have a high acceptance level: (a) Those facing a medium risk of oil spills and having a low financial burden; and (b) those facing a high risk of oil spills. The study reveals that, for a country with a high risk of exposure to tanker oil spills, such as China, with its improvement in economic status it is far better for it to join the IOPC Fund, so as to provide better protection both for potential pollution victims and for the marine environment. The results of this study can also be applied to other countries that are considering whether or not to accept the international compensation regime for tanker oil pollution.

Drass, Kriss A., and J. William Spencer. 1987. "Accounting for Pre-Sentencing Recommendations: Typologies and Probation Officers' Theory of Office." Social Problems 34 (3):277-93.

Abstract: Many studies of social reactions to deviance have focused on how agents of social control make decisions, but little is known about how these agents produce accounts for their decisions. Research on accounts or rationales for decisions can provide important insights into the typologies of deviant actors used by agents in their daily work activities. We present an analysis of the accounts that probation officers produce as support for their evaluations of defendants during the pre-sentencing process. Using quantitative and qualitative analytic techniques, we identify the typologies that officers employ when assessing a defendent as a "high risk" for probation. We use the concept "theory of office," to discuss how such typologies reflect the work perspectives used by agents in particular locations within the criminal justice system.

Dumont, Patrick, and Hanna Bäck. 2006. "Why so few, and why so late? Green Parties and the Question of governmental Participation." European Journal of Political Research 45 (S1):35-67.

Abstract: Green parties have been represented in the parliaments of European Union countries since 1981, but it was not until recently that a few have entered national governments. Using a data set comprised of 51 government formation opportunities (where the Greens were represented in parliament), the authors of this article show that the parties involved in these bargaining situations are more office-oriented than earlier studies had found. As Green parties are seen to be less office-seeking than other parties, this general tendency for office-seeking behaviour in government formation may partly account for the scarcity of Greens in government. Furthermore, a number of hypotheses derived from theories that account for the specific nature of Green parties in terms of their office-, policy- and vote-seeking orientations are tested. It is found that Greens participate in government when they have lost votes in at least one election, when the main party of the left identifies them as a clear electoral threat and when the policy distance between the Greens and either the formateur party or the main left party is small (the latter condition must be accompanied by a substantial proportion of seats for the Green party in parliament). As most of these simultaneous conditions only materialized recently, and in a few countries, it is argued that this analysis, which is the first comparative and multivariate test focused on this question, explains the scarcity and the delay of Green governmental participation.

Dunlop, Claire A., Martino Maggetti, Claudio M. Radaelli, and Duncan Russel. 2012. "The Many Uses of Regulatory Impact Assessment: A Meta-Analysis of EU and UK cases." Regulation & Governance 6 (1):23-45.

Abstract: Research on regulation has crossed paths with the literature on policy instruments, showing that regulatory policy instruments contain cognitive and normative beliefs about policy. Thus, their usage stacks the deck in favor of one type of actor or one type of regulatory solution. In this article, we challenge the assumption that there is a predetermined relationship between ideas, regulatory policy instruments, and outcomes. We argue that different combinations of conditions lead to different outcomes, depending on how actors use the instrument. Empirically, we analyze 31 EU and UK case studies of regulatory impact assessment (RIA) - a regulatory policy instrument that has been pivotal in the so-called better regulation movement. We distinguish four main usages of RIA, that is, political, instrumental, communicative, and perfunctory. We find that in our sample instrumental usage is not so rare and that the contrast between communicative and political usages is less stark than is commonly thought. In terms of policy recommendations, our analysis suggests that there may be different paths to desirable outcomes. Policymakers should therefore explore different combinations of conditions leading to the usages they deem desirable rather than arguing for a fixed menu of variables.

Dy, Sydney M., Pushkal Garg, Dorothy Nyberg, Patricia B. Dawson, Peter J. Pronovost, Laura Morlock, Haya Rubin, and Albert W. Wu. 2005. "Critical Pathway Effectiveness: Assessing the Impact of Patient, Hospital Care, and Pathway Characteristics Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Health Services Research 40 (2):499-516.

Abstract: Objective: To qualitatively describe patient, hospital care, and critical pathway characteristics that may be associated with pathway effectiveness in reducing length of stay. Data Sources/Study Setting. Administrative data and review of pathway documentation and a sample of medical records for each of 26 surgical critical pathways in a tertiary care center's department of surgery, 1988-1998. Study Design: Retrospective qualitative study. Data Collection/Abstraction Methods: Using information from a literature review and consultation with experts, we developed a list of characteristics that might impact critical pathway effectiveness. We used hypothesis-driven qualitative comparative analysis to describe key primary and secondary characteristics that might differentiate effective from ineffective critical pathways. Principal Findings: All 7 of the 26 pathways associated with a reduced length of stay had at least one of the following characteristics: (1) no preexisting trend toward lower length of stay for the procedure (71 percent), and/or (2) it was the first pathway implemented in its surgical service (71 percent). In addition, pathways effective in reducing length of stay tended to be for procedures with lower patient severity of illness, as indicated by fewer intensive care days and lower mortality. Effective pathways tended to be used more frequently than ineffective pathways (77 versus 59 percent of medical records with pathway documents present), but high rates of documented pathway use were not necessary for pathway effectiveness. Conclusions: Critical pathway programs may have limited effectiveness, and may be effective only in certain situations. Because pathway utilization was not a strong predictor of pathway effectiveness, the mechanism by which critical pathways may reduce length of stay is unclear.

Ebbinghaus, Bernhard, and Jelle Visser. 1999. "When Institutions Matter: Union Growth and Decline in Western Europe, 1950-1995." European Sociological Review 15 (2):135-58.

Abstract: During the early post-war period, Western trade-union movements grew in membership and achieved an institutionalized role in industrial relations and politics. However, during the last decades, many trade unions have seen their membership decline as they came increasingly under pressure due to social, economic, and political changes. This article reviews the main structural, cyclical, and institutional factors explaining union growth and decline. Concentrating on Western Europe, the empirical analysis compares cross-national union density data for 13 countries over the first period (1950-1975) and for 16 countries over the second.'crisis' period (1975-1995). The quantitative correlation and regression analysis indicates that structural and cyclical factors fail to explain the level and changes in unionization across Western Europe, while institutional variables fare better. In a second, qualitative comparative analysis, the authors stress the need to explain crossnational differences in the level or trend of unionization by a set of institutional arrangements: the access of unions to representation in the workplace; the availability of a selective incentive in the form of a union-administered unemployment scheme; recognition of employers through nationwide and sectoral corporatist institutions; and closed-shop arrangements for forced membership. Such institutional configurations support membership recruitment and membership retention, and define the conditions for the strategic choice of trade unions in responding to structural social-economic, political, and cultural changes.
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Eder, Christina. 2010. "A Key to Success? Are There Conditions for Successful Ballot Votes in the German Lander?" Politische Vierteljahresschrift 51 (1):43-67.

Abstract: Between 1990 and 2005, eleven referenda took place in the German Lander. Of these initiatives, seven were accepted by the voters, while the remaining four were unsuccessful. This pattern raises the question as to whether certain factors lead to increased likelihood of success at the ballot-box. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), the following analyses demonstrate that, taken separately, none of the conditions examined in this article have positive effects on the chances of popular endorsement. Instead, a certain combination of conditions seems to be associated with successful initiatives.
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Emmenegger, Patrick. 2008. "Religion und Arbeitnehmerschutzgesetzgebung: Eine Fuzzy Set-Analyse." Swiss Political Science Review 14 (1):85-130.

Abstract: Im Zentrum dieses Artikels steht die Beziehung zwischen Religion und Arbeitsmarkt in den westlichen Demokratien. Ausgangspunkt ist der von Esping-Andersen behauptete positive Effekt der katholischen Soziallehre auf die Arbeitnehmerschutzgesetzgebung. Es wird argumentiert, dass diese These um parteipolitische Akteure (Christ- und Sozialdemokratie), Religiosität sowie um eine Unterteilung zwischen den beiden Hauptströmungen des Protestantismus (reformiert und lutherisch) erweitert werden muss. Die empirische Analyse zeigt, dass die These von Esping-Andersen über einige Erklärungskraft verfügt, die diskutierten Erweiterungen aber notwendig sind. Neben religiösen Faktoren spielt auch der Grad der Koordination zwischen Firmen in einem Arbeitsmarktregime eine wichtige Rolle. Das verwendete Modell bekundet jedoch einige Mühe mit den kleinen, offenen Volkswirtschaften Europas. Hier existieren alternative Mechanismen zum Schutz der Arbeitnehmerinnen und Arbeitnehmer, welche im untersuchten Fall der Schweiz sogar zu analogen Verteilungseffekten zwischen den Geschlechtern führen.

Emmenegger, Patrick. 2011. "Job Security Regulations in Western Democracies: A Fuzzy Set Analysis." European Journal of Political Research 50 (3):336-64.

Abstract: This article uses fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to examine the determinants of job security regulations - here understood as restrictions on hiring and firing - in Western democracies. Unlike previous studies, the analysis reveals three different paths to high levels of job security regulations. The first path covers the Southern European state capitalist countries. In these countries, conflicts between forces pushing for liberal democracy and groups alienated from modernisation have led to high levels of statism and crowded out other societal actors. Job security regulations were enacted relatively early in order to provide social security by means available to the state. Due to fragmented welfare states, job security regulations have remained one of the most important pillars of the social protection regime. The second path covers the Continental European managed capitalist countries and is also characterised by high levels of statism. In these countries, repressive governments employed a stick-and-carrot strategy to weaken the labour movement and tie the loyalties of the individual to the state. After the Second World War, these countries developed corporatist intermediation systems and encompassing and generous welfare states. Finally, the third path covers the Nordic managed capitalist countries. This path is characterised by a high degree of non-market coordination, strong labour movements and few institutional veto points. In the Nordic managed capitalist countries, job security regulations traditionally have been subject to collective agreements. However, in the 1960s, labour movements succeeded in pushing through the public legislation of job security despite opposition from employers' associations. Methodologically, this article demonstrates that cross-national differences in the level of job security regulations can only be explained if the methods used allow for complex causality. In contrast, methods which focus on 'net effects' do not offer satisfactory explanations for the cross-national differences in the level of job security regulations.
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Eng, Sereikhuoch, and Arch G. Woodside. 2012. "Configural Analysis of the Drinking Man: Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analyses." Addictive Behaviors 37 (4):541-3.

Abstract: The study here presents multiple configurations (i.e., causal recipes) of antecedents associating with heavy drinking using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Using national survey data (United States), intermediate solutions of fsQCA analyses yield high consistency and modest coverage in identifying heavy-drinking groups.

Engeli, Isabelle. 2012. "Policy Struggle on Reproduction." Political Research Quarterly 65 (2):330-45.

Abstract: How best to govern reproduction is the subject of heated controversies and policies on abortion and reproductive technologies present strong variations. Through fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, the article explores the interplay of institutional settings, Christian Democratic politics, women's movement, and Christian opposition in France and Switzerland since the 1970s. If little evidence is found for any institutional impact on policies regarding abortion and reproductive technologies, the analysis confirms the growing influence of the medical profession over reproductive issues and shows that the success of the women's movement has been fluctuating while prolife opposition seems to have gradually lost influence.

Engeli, Isabelle, and Christine Rothmayr Allison. 2013. Diverging against All Odds? Regulatory Paths in Embryonic Stem Cell Research across Western Europe. Journal of European Public Policy 20(3): 407-24.

Abstract: An interest-driven account of embryonic stem cell research would, given the considerable financial and scientific concerns, likely predict regulations to converge towards permissive policies. However, across Western Europe, national regulations of embryonic stem cell research vary considerably, from general bans to permissive policies. There is a lack of systematic accounting for the non-convergence, and the sparse attempts at explanation are contradictory. Drawing on qualitative comparative analysis and configurational causality, we assess the interaction of a number of explanatory factors. Our empirical analysis reveals the importance of one factor in particular, path-dependence, insofar as prior policies on assisted reproduction exert a strong and systematic effect on the subsequent regulation of embryonic stem cell research.

Epple, Ruedi, Martin Gasser, Sarah Kersten, Michael Nollert, and Sebastian Schief. 2014. "Institutions and Gender Time Inequality: A Fuzzy-Set QCA of Swiss Cantons." Swiss Journal of Sociology 40 (2):259-78.

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Evans, Anthony John, and Paul Dragos Aligica. 2008. "The Spread of the Flat Tax in Eastern Europe." Eastern European Economics 46 (3):49-67.

Abstract: This paper is an exploratory comparative analysis of the spread of the flat tax in postcommunist Eastern Europe. The paper reviews the flat tax as a public policy prescription, discusses the various arguments that underpin its potential reception, introduces and applies a synthetic comparative method to study its spread in eleven East European countries, draws several conclusions regarding the conditions associated with implementing flat taxes, and suggests further research directions.

Fan, Di, Lin Cui, Yi Li, and Cherrie J. Zhu. 2016. "Localized Learning by Emerging Multinational Enterprises in Developed Host Countries: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Australia." International Business Review 25 (1, Part A):187-203.

Abstract: Firms learn general international management and foreign market specific knowledge in their internationalization process. Firms' strategic emphasis on generalized vs. localized learning is an important yet underexplored issue in the extant literature. Drawing on the theoretical framework of dynamic capability, and in the context of emerging multinational enterprises' FDI into developed host countries, this study examines the equifinal process-position-path configurations of firms that will motivate them to engage in localized learning (as opposed to generalized learning). Utilizing primary and secondary data of eleven Chinese foreign direct investments in Australia, collected at both headquarters and subsidiary levels, we conducted fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) that provided substantial support to our propositions. This study contributes to the internationalization process model by identifying equifinal process-position-path configurations, as well as their core and peripheral conditions that motivate localized learning at both the headquarters and the subsidiary levels.

Fink-Hafner, Danica, and Mitja Hafner-Fink. 2009. "The Determinants of the Success of Transitions to Democracy." Europe-Asia Studies 61 (9):1603-25.

Abstract: The article provides an analysis of the determinants of the success of transitions to democracy based on a combination of qualitative comparative analysis of Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia; and hierarchical clustering. The key finding is that one can reveal configurations of several factors which jointly determine either continuous or disrupted transitions to democracy.

Fischer, Jörn, André Kaiser, and Ingo Rohlfing. 2006. "The Push and Pull of Ministerial Resignations in Germany, 1969-2005." West European Politics 29 (4):709-35.

Abstract: When and why are cabinet ministers forced out of office? We argue that ministerial resignations cannot be understood as mechanistic consequences of serious personal or departmental errors as the classical responsibility hypothesis implies. Rather, they follow a systematic political logic. Cabinet ministers have to resign whenever the prime minister perceives the political costs of a minister staying in office to be higher than the benefits of keeping the status quo. We test this argument with resignation events in Germany in the period 1969 to 2005. Based on detailed data collection, we find 111 resignation events, i.e. serious public discussions about a cabinet minister's future, 14 of which ended in resignation. These data are analysed employing statistical as well as Qualitative Comparative Analysis based on Boolean algebra to detect patterns of ministerial resignations.

Fischer, Manuel. 2014. "Coalition Structures and Policy Change in a Consensus Democracy." Policy Studies Journal 42 (3):344-66.

Abstract: This paper studies the relation between coalition structures in policy processes and policy change. While different factors such as policy images, learning processes, external events, or venue shopping are important to explain policy change, coalition structures within policy processes are often neglected. However, policy change happens as a result of negotiations and coordination among coalitions within policy processes. The paper analyzes how conflict, collaboration, and power relations among coalitions of actors influence policy change in an institutional context of a consensus democracy. Empirically, I rely on a Qualitative Comparative Analysis to conduct a cross-sector comparison of the 11 most important policy processes in Switzerland between 2001 and 2006. Coalition structures with low conflict and strong collaboration among coalitions as well as structures with dominant coalitions and weak collaboration both facilitate major policy change. Competing coalitions that are separated by strong conflict but still collaborate strongly produce policy outputs that are close to the status quo.

Fischer, Manuel. 2015. "Institutions and Coalitions in Policy Processes: A Cross-Sectoral Comparison." Journal of Public Policy 35 (2):245-68.

Abstract: Actors with joint beliefs in a decision-making process form coalitions in order to translate their goals into policy. Yet, coalitions are not formed in an institutional void, but rather institutions confer opportunities and constraints to actors. This paper studies the institutional conditions under which either coalition structures with a dominant coalition or with competing coalitions emerge. It takes into account three conditions, i.e. the degree of federalism of a project, its degree of Europeanisation and the openness of the pre-parliamentary phase of the decision-making process. The cross-sectoral comparison includes the 11 most important decision-making processes in Switzerland between 2001 and 2006 with a fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Results suggest that Europeanisation or an open pre-parliamentary phase lead to a dominant coalition, whereas only a specific combination of all three conditions is able to explain a structure with competing coalitions.
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Fiss, Peer C. 2011. "Building Better Causal Theories: A Fuzzy Set Approach to Typologies in Organizational Research." Academy of Management Journal 54 (2):393-420.

Abstract: Typologies are an important way of organizing the complex cause-effect relationships that are key building blocks of the strategy and organization literatures. Here, I develop a novel theoretical perspective on causal core and periphery, which is based on how elements of a configuration are connected to outcomes. Using data on high technology firms, I empirically investigate configurations based on the Miles and Snow typology using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). My findings show how the theoretical perspective developed here allows for a detailed analysis of causal core, periphery, and asymmetry, shifting the focus to midrange theories of causal processes.

Fitjar, Rune Dahl, Einar Leknes, and Janne Thygesen. 2013. "Europeanisation of Regional Policy Making: A Boolean Analysis of Norwegian Counties' Participation in the EU's Interreg Programme." Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 31 (3):381-400.

Abstract: How does the EU affect policy making by regional governments in Norway, a unitary nonmember state? We address this question through examining the impact of participation in the Interreg programme on Norwegian county councils' regional development policies. We examine forty-four acts of participation by Norwegian counties in Interreg projects, tracking their effects on both incremental policy changes and radical changes of policy direction. We find that most of the projects have resulted in policy changes by the county council and sometimes by other actors, and almost a third have resulted in a completely or partly new policy direction. Examining which projects had the greatest impact, we find that the county council's ability to shape the project according to regional concerns, especially in newly formed networks, is an important mediating condition. This could indicate that regional governments are using Interreg as a channel for policy entrepreneurship, building activities in new policy areas.

Flagg, Julia A. 2015. "Aiming for Zero: What Makes Nations Adopt Carbon Neutral Pledges?" Environmental Sociology 1 (3):202-12.

Abstract: Amid widespread inaction in the face of the looming threat of climate change, the leaders of nine nation-states have opted for a bold, seemingly anomalous, course of action by making national carbon neutrality pledges. Because prior research has focused on why states fail to curb emissions, there is a paucity of research on why some states take a different path by committing to drastic emission reductions. This research aims to help fill that gap. First, a content analysis of 252 newspaper articles reveals that New Zealand made the first pledge and eight other states have followed. Second, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis is used to compare political and social conditions in states with carbon neutral pledges to conditions in a randomly selected group of states without such pledges. Pledge states, compared to non-pledge states, have better governance scores on world indices, an abundant presence of global environmental NGOs, and smaller populations. Pledge states also have lower levels of income inequality (measured by Gini coefficients) than non-pledge states. I argue that these conditions (effective governance, abundant NGOs, small population sizes, and egalitarian class structures) facilitate collective action, and thus enabled some states to make carbon neutral pledges.

Foran, John. 1997. "The Future of Revolutions at the Fin-de-Siècle." Third World Quarterly 18 (5):791-820.

1.Paragraph: Is the era of revolution over? Did it end in 1989? And was that such a long time ago, in any case? It doesn't necessarily seem to be over in places like Mexico (Chiapas), Algeria, Peru or Zaire, and may be just around the corner elsewhere (Egypt?). The discourse of revolution may be changing; the international loci and foci may be moving (with the demise of the Soviet Union and the tentative consolidation of democracies in Latin America); the actors may be changing (with more women and ethnic minorities active; though both have long histories of revolutionary activism)-all of this may be (arguably) true. But this article will argue that revolutions are going to be with us to the end of history, and-pace Francis Fukuyama-that is not in sight.

Ford, E. W., W. J. Duncan, and P. M. Ginter. 2005. "Health Departments' Implementation of Public Health's Core Functions: An Assessment of Health Impacts." Public Health 119 (1):11-21.

Abstract: Objectives. The purpose of this article was to investigate the relationship between state health agencies' adherence to the recommendations of the United State's Institute of Medicine's (IOM) report, 'The Future of Public Health', and changes in their populations' health. Study design. Data were abstracted from agencies' plans, budgets, annual reports, etc. spanning a 5-year period. A comprehensive change in population health measure over the same period was drawn from the UnitedHealth Group's annual survey. Methods. Configurations, based on public health core functions, were established using linear regression and qualitative comparative analysis. The dependent variable was a holistic measure of change in a state population's health status. Results. State agencies that most completely adopted a public health model emphasizing assessment, assurance and policy development also experienced significant improvements in their population health measures. Conclusions. State agencies that more completely adopted the IOM's public health core functions had a concomitant improvement in their populations' health statuses. Further research to explore if there is a causal link between adoption of the core functions and positive health impacts is warranted.

Forsythe, Perry John. 2012. "Profiling Customer perceived Service Quality Expectations in made-to-order Housing Construction in Australia." Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 19 (6):587-609.

Abstract: Purpose: The study aims to assist contractors in strategically managing customer satisfaction by applying marketing theory to housing construction. It specifically aims to investigate service quality as an input to pre-purchase (pre-contract) expectations in the made-to-order housing construction market. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model is developed from the literature concerning the formulation of expectations during the pre-purchase decision process. Data from 51 detailed telephone interviews with customers undertaking live housing projects are analysed using both thematic analysis and qualitative comparative analysis. Findings: A revised model is provided, which includes a dimensionalised set of traits to suit housing construction customers. Strings of traits are then used to develop holistic customer profiles, including situations where service quality is fully present in critical pre-purchase expectations and where it is totally absent (i.e. price and product design dominate instead). Practical implications: The model and profiling technique offer a generalisable basis for contractors and others involved in housing delivery to better understand customer expectations, thus making it possible to better manage customer satisfaction. Originality/value: The research contributes to new knowledge by providing a systematic means of understanding customer behaviour at a depth that is not apparent in the current body of literature. Theory is also developed in a way that has practical application, i.e. customer profiles can be used to assist daily marketing and management operations.

Freitag, Markus, and Raphaela Schlicht. 2009. "Educational Federalism in Germany: Foundations of Social Inequality in Education." Governance 22 (1):47-72.

Abstract: This article applies Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis to examine how sub-national education systems affect the extent of social inequality in education within the German federal states. Variations in educational outcomes between the federal states can be primarily attributed to the strict educational decentralization in Germany. We examine four conditions of regional education systems presumed to be relevant for the extent of social inequality in education: the availability of early childhood education, the development of all-day schools, the onset of tracking to different school types, and the degree of tripartition in secondary education. Altogether, we find systematic relationships between the variation of sub-national education systems and the extent of social inequality in education. The results indicate that well-developed early childhood education is necessary for a low degree of educational inequality. However, educational inequality is not directly related to partisan and socioeconomic determinants.
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Freitas, Jonathan Simões, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves, Lin Chih Cheng, and Reynaldo Maia Muniz. 2013. "Structuration Aspects in Academic Spin-Off Emergence: A Roadmap-Based Analysis." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 80 (6):1162-78.

Abstract: The influence of the strategic management research rooted conception of firm performance as resulting from the structure-agency duality is clear in the academic spin-off (ASO) literature. However, the interplay of structuration aspects during ASO emergence is still under-researched - though potentially relevant to explain spin-offs' heterogeneity. Thus, this paper presents a roadmap-based investigation of structure and agency patterns in the emergence of a Brazilian high-tech ASO focused on developing products from carbon nanotubes to industrial applications. Causal cognitive mapping was used to construct seven emergence roadmaps from entrepreneurs' retrospective narratives and the qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was applied to formally analyze the maps. As a result, the main generative mechanisms of the structuration aspects were identified, leading to evidence-based propositions about the distinctive explanatory capability of: R&D-oriented agency, internal structures and environment-resources combinations. Moreover, the study identified subsets of the original roadmap layers able to consistently limit, in a logically parsimonious way, the empirical diversity of various phenomena considered theoretically relevant aspects of academic spin-off emergence. Hence, the paper illustrates the value, from a scholarly perspective, of incorporating formal techniques to roadmap analyses and identifies complex patterns of structure and agency to be further explored by future investigations.

Freitas, Jonathan Simões, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves, Lin Chih Cheng, and Reynaldo Maia Muniz. 2011. "Parsimonious Determinants of Pre-Incubated Academic Spin-Offs Initial Performance: A Configurational Perspective." Journal of Technology Management & Innovation 6 (2):50-65.

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to refine, from a configurational perspective, the understanding of causal conditions underlying performance differences between new academic technology-based firms. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), a research strategy conceived to investigate parsimonious configurations that explain a given result of interest in small-N populations, was adopted as the methodological approach. The analyses were performed using a database related to 81 Brazilian academic spin-offs, pre-incubated by a governmental innovation promotion program. Based on the resultant configurations, parsimonious sets of variables for explaining the initial performance of these new ventures were obtained. Complementary findings and their respective implications are also discussed.

Ganguly, Rajat. 1997. "The Move towards Disintegration: Explaining Ethnosecessionist Mobilization in South Asia." Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 3 (2):101-30.

Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyze ethnosecessionist mobilization - that is, political mobilization in support of national independence by breaking away from the existing state. The author tests the applicability of theories of ethnic political mobilization in explaining ethnosecessionist tendencies in South Asia in the 1980s. The causal variables that have a bearing on ethnic political mobilization are identified; using binary coding, each causal variable is linked with the outcome variable for each case selected for study in order to reveal the various causal combinations of the phenomenon; and using Boolean methodology, the various causal combinations are reduced to determine the minimum causal conjunctures of ethnosecessionism in South Asia, which can be related to the key causal requirements of the different theories of ethnic political mobilization to determine which theories are more applicable in explaining ethnosecessionist tendencies.

Ganter, Alois, and Achim Hecker. 2014. "Configurational Paths to Organizational Innovation: Qualitative Comparative Analyses of Antecedents and Contingencies." Journal of Business Research 67 (6):1285-92.

Abstract: To explore complex patterns of causal interrelationships between antecedents of organizational innovation, this study applies fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) to a large sample of German firms drawn from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS). The results show several equifinal configurations of contextual factors leading to organizational innovation. Evidence also suggests complex substitutive and complementary relationships between factors and reveals their causal asymmetric influence on firm's innovation behavior. These findings help explain some inconsistent results in prior studies on organizational innovation.

Garcia-Castro, Roberto, and Ruth V. Aguilera. 2014. "Family Involvement in Business and Financial Performance: A Set-Theoretic Cross-National Inquiry." Journal of Family Business Strategy 5 (1):85-96.

Abstract: Prior empirical research finds positive, negative and neutral relationships between family involvement in business and firm performance. We argue that some of the challenges that have plagued empirical research in this field are related to the measurement of family involvement in business. Real-world family firms are not binary entities. Rather, they can be better characterized by heterogeneous configurations formed by different components of family involvement in the enterprise. These alternative configurations can be systematically captured using set-theoretic methods. Applying this methodology to a cross-national sample of 6592 companies, we identify which particular configurations are associated with superior financial performance. Our results lend support to the configurational hypothesis, which posits that the impact of family involvement in business is not the product of the components of family involvement in isolation but that it is subject to substantial complementarity and substitution effects.

García-Castro, Roberto, Ruth V. Aguilera, and Miguel A. Ariño. 2013. "Bundles of Firm Corporate Governance Practices: A Fuzzy Set Analysis." Corporate Governance: An International Review 21 (4):390-407.

Abstract: Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: We explore how the combinations of firm-level corporate governance (CG) practices embedded in different national governance systems lead to high firm performance. Research Findings/Insights: Using fuzzy set/qualitative comparative analysis, we uncover a variety of findings. First, we show that within each of the stylized national CG models, there are multiple bundles of firm-level governance practices leading to high firm performance (i.e., equifinality). Second, we provide evidence of complementarity as well as functional equivalence between CG practices. Finally, we demonstrate that there can be heterogeneity ("differences in kind") in firm governance practices within each stylized model of CG. Theoretical/Academic Implications: We build on the configurational and complementarity-based approaches to make the following theoretical claims. First, governance practices within firm bundles do not always relate to each other in a monotonic and cumulative fashion as this entails higher costs and possibly over-governance. Second, practices in bundles do not need to be aligned toward the insider or the outsider model ("similar in kind"). We argue that non-aligned practices can also be complementary, creating hybrid governance forms. Third, we predict functional equivalence across bundles of CG practices which grants firms agency on which of the practices to implement in order to achieve high performance. Practitioner/Policy Implications: We contribute to comparative CG research by demonstrating that there are multiple governance paths leading to high firm performance, and that these practices do not always belong to the same national governance tradition. Therefore, our findings alert of the perils of "one size fits all" governance solutions when designing and implementing CG policies.

García-Castro, Roberto, and José Casasola. 2011. "A Set-Theoretic Analysis of the Components of Family Involvement in Publicly Listed and Major Unlisted Firms." Journal of Family Business Strategy 2 (1):15-25.

Abstract: Family firms can be thought of as heterogeneous configurations where ownership, governance, management and succession components are often intertwined. Previous works have typically used definitions of family firm based on one or more of these components. In this empirical work we seek to clarify the relationships among the components of family involvement in family firms by using a set-theoretic methodology (fs/QCA). Applying this methodology to a sample of 6611 publicly listed and major unlisted companies from 46 countries, we identified the most frequent configurations of family firms based on the components of family involvement. We present the most frequent configurations and discuss implications for empirical research and theory building on family firms.

Garcia-Castro, Roberto, and Claude Francoeur. 2016. "When More is not Better: Complementarities, Costs and Contingencies in Stakeholder Management." Strategic Management Journal 37 (2):406-24.

Abstract: Instrumental stakeholder theory has largely emphasized the positive effects of investing in stakeholder cooperative relationships in an additive, linear fashion in the sense that the more investments the better. Yet investing in stakeholders can be very costly and the effects of these investments in firm performance are subject to complex internal complementarities and external contingencies. In this article we rely on set-theoretic methods and a large international dataset of 1,060 multinational companies to explore theoretically and empirically some of the complementarities, costs and contingencies likely to arise in stakeholder management.

Gherghina, Sergiu. 2009. "The Helping Hand: The Role of the EU in the Democratization of Post-Communist Europe." Romanian Journal of Political Science 9 (2):65-79.

Abstract: Two decades after the collapse of communism, there are major differences in the extent of democratization within the Iron Curtain countries. Aware of the complex mechanism to trace possible causes for such a variation, this study uses qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to test the influence of nine international and domestic factors in influencing this process in 20 out of 29 post-communist countries. The evidence indicates that, out of all considered potential explanations, the perspective of the EU accession and a constant economic development are the primary propellers that induce democratization in the region. These quantitative results support and complement the literature that emphasizes the increased role played by the EU promise in the democratization process of the region.

Gherghina, Sergiu, and George Jiglau. 2011. "Explaining Ethnic Mobilisation in Post-Communist Countries." Europe-Asia Studies 63 (1):49-76.

Abstract: The complex dynamics of inter-ethnic relations in post-communist countries leads to a puzzle: why do some ethnic minorities mobilise to obtain political representation whereas others do not? We use qualitative comparative analysis to capture complex causal patterns explaining the formation of ethnic parties and to analyse the combined effect of social, economic and political variables. Our article bridges a significant gap in the existing literature that usually focuses on simple explanations for the existence of ethnic parties. The analysis reveals that the political mobilisation of ethnic minorities is explained by institutional elements often underemphasised in existing theories and research.

Ghoshal, Raj Andrew. 2013. "Transforming Collective Memory: Mnemonic Opportunity Structures and the Outcomes of Racial Violence Memory Movements." Theory and Society 42 (4):329-50.

Abstract: While some research on collective memory has addressed the creation of memory projects such as memorials and historical commissions, less attention has been paid to explaining variation in these projects' success. America's troubled history of lynchings and race riots is one topic increasingly addressed by commemorative projects. This article evaluates factors shaping efforts to imprint past racial violence into broader collective memory. Building on research on constraints imposed by actual pasts and environmental conditions, I argue that structural influences on collective memory, or mnemonic opportunity structures, powerfully affect the success of commemorative initiatives. I identify three major dimensions of mnemonic opportunity structures: (1) an environment's present-day commemorative capacity, a past incident's (2) ascribed significance, and (3) the moral valence of key characters at the time it occurred. Qualitative data from multiple case studies and 90 interviews, along with supplementary quantitative and qualitative comparative analyses (QCAs) of all recent projects marking segregation-era racial violence, illustrate the utility of the framework.
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Gilbert, Brett Anitra, and Joanna Tochman Campbell. 2015. "The Geographic Origins of Radical Technological Paradigms: A Configurational Study." Research Policy 44 (2):311-27.

Abstract: History and place matter for the emergence of new technological paradigms. However, limited empirical evidence exists that reflects the characteristics that support or hinder the development of radical technologies within regions. In this study, we theorize geographic regions as distinct socio-economic-political systems with different resources for radical technological development. We integrate evolutionary economic geography and technology management literatures with universities positioned as key drivers for radical technology development within regions. We use the creation of a university research center for a radical technological design as evidence of new technology paradigm emergence. The framework explains the influence of intellectual, industry, social, and political characteristics on the geographic origins of radical technological paradigms. It is tested using a configurational approach - fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis - in the emerging fuel cell technology context, which is a radical paradigm for energy generation. The sampling frame includes 48 metropolitan statistical areas in the United States. The findings reveal five unique configurations that lead to the presence of a new paradigm within regions, and five different configurations that are associated with its absence.

Gilligan, Derek G., and Christopher J. Lennings. 2010. "Psychopathic and Neuropathic Pathways to Homicide: Examination of Harris and Rice's Two-Path Model of Criminal Violence in Homicide." Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 17 (1):148-68.

Abstract: The present research examined a two-path model of homicide defined by psychopathic and neuropathic pathways. Twenty-six forensic psychiatric inpatients found not guilty due to reason of insanity of homicide or attempted homicides were assessed. A large number of variables derived from standardized neuropsychological psychometric assessment, actuarial and structured risk assessment tools and structured interviews were analysed. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) and the Answer Tree program showed that independence of the two pathways was observed from a nomothetic analysis with individual variations understood by the complex variable relationships at an idiographic level.

Giugni, Marco, and Alessandro Nai. 2013. Paths Towards Consensus: Explaining Decision Making within the Swiss Global Justice Movement. Swiss Political Science Review 19(1): 26-40.

Abstract: We examine the conditions leading social movement organizations to adopt consensus in their internal decision making. To do so, we look at organizations of the Swiss global justice movement, which puts the search for consensus at center stage. Our findings show that the ways in which social movement organizations take decisions and their vision of democracy more generally are not simply a matter of free choice by their leaders and members, but depend on certain organizational characteristics. The most important one is a small organizational size, which is a crucial condition for the adoption of consensus in internal decision making. This condition combines with another one pertaining to the cultural tradition of contention represented by the social movement family to explain consensus. In addition, our findings show that small, transnational organizations following inclusive participatory practices are also more likely to adopt consensus when they make decisions.
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Giugni, Marco, and Sakura Yamasaki. 2009. "The Policy Impact of Social Movements: A Replication Through Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Mobilization: An International Quarterly 14 (4):467-84.

Abstract: This article reanalyzes the data of a previous study on the policy impact of antinuclear, ecology, and peace movements in three countries with the aim of replicating its findings. Our goal is to see whether using a different analytical technique will yield similar results. The previous study used a regression approach to time-series analysis. Here, we use qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to analyze the previous study's data. Specifically, we test the two main hypotheses based on the joint-effect model of social movement outcomes: (1) that the policy impact of social movements is conditioned by the presence of powerful allies within the institutional arenas, by the presence of a favorable public opinion, and/or by both factors simultaneously; and (2) that social movements are more likely to have policy impacts when they address issues and policy domains of low saliency. In addition, we compare the policy impact of social movements across countries. Our analysis confirms to a large extent the findings of the earlier time-series analysis, namely, the strong explanatory power of the joint effect model of social movement outcomes and the varying impact of different movements on public policy.
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Giuliani, Marco. 2016. "Patterns of Democracy Reconsidered: The Ambiguous Relationship between Corporatism and Consensualism." European Journal of Political Research 55 (1):22-42.

Abstract: Arend Lijphart's Patterns of Democracy, similar to most of his work, elicited fierce scientific debate. This article replicates some of the analyses proposed in its second edition (published in 2012) in the light of the critiques received by the first edition (published in 2009). It primarily examines the relationship between institutional setup and interest group representation, disentangling the effect of consensualism from that of corporatism on issues such as macroeconomic performance and governance capabilities. The article further deepens our understanding of the complex causal mechanisms connecting these variables, proposing a more sophisticated empirical investigation that emphasises selection effects and conjunctural causation.

Gjølberg, Maria. 2009. "The Origin of Corporate Social Responsibility: Global Forces or National Legacies?" Socio-Economic Review 7 (4):605-37.

Abstract: This paper explores the relative importance of global forces and national political-economic institutions for companies' willingness and ability to engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR). The globalist hypothesis postulates that a company's CSR efforts are a function of the dictates of the global market place: strong anti-globalization and anti-corporate sentiments generate a need for a positive reputation to obtain a 'social license to operate'. The institutionalist hypothesis postulates that a company's CSR efforts are a function of institutional factors in the national political-economic system: companies based in political-economic systems with strong institutions for social embedding of the economy have comparative institutional advantages for success in CSR. The hypotheses are examined quantitatively by testing an index of national CSR performance against well-established political-economic indicators. The final analysis, based on qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), reveals causal heterogeneity and indicates two separate pathways leading to CSR success.
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Glaesser, Judith. 2008. "Just how Flexible is the German Selective Secondary School System? A Configurational Analysis." International Journal of Research & Method in Education 31 (2):193-209.

Abstract: School systems may be usefully characterized according to Turner's proposed ideal types of sponsored and contest mobility. Germany is a critical case with respect to this typology because its secondary school system is stratified and selective, and yet it offers the opportunity for upward and downward mobility. Drawing on an analysis of a German longitudinal dataset, this paper addresses the question of flexibility or rigidity of the school system, exploring the ways in which factors other than pupils' ability influence selection processes within that system. Both academic ability and ascriptive factors act together to facilitate or hinder changes of academic routes within the school system. The methodological focus of the paper is on the introduction to an innovative method, Charles Ragin's Qualitative Comparative Analysis, a method based on set theory. It involves the identification of necessary and sufficient conditions for a given outcome, taking conjunctions of causal conditions into account.

Glaesser, Judith, and Barry Cooper. 2012. "Gender, Parental Education, and Ability: Their Interacting Roles in Predicting GCSE Success." Cambridge Journal of Education 42 (4):463-80.

Abstract: We investigate the relations between gender, parental education, ability, and educational achievement in Britain, focusing on the way in which gender and parental education interact with ability to contribute to a pupil's obtaining secondary school qualifications. This allows us to provide evidence relevant to claims concerning the effects of differences in the way in which working- and middle-class familial cultures interact with gender-specific behaviour in school. Given the configurational nature of the processes likely to be involved, we employ Ragin's Qualitative Comparative Analysis as our method. We find that, in both academically selective and non-selective schools, high ability is a quasi-sufficient condition for obtaining certain levels of qualification, but that at lower levels of ability, either being female or having highly educated parents (or both) have to be present, too. Boys without highly educated parents perform less well than girls from a similar background.

Glaesser, Judith, and Barry Cooper. 2012. "Educational Achievement in Selective and Comprehensive Local Education Authorities: A Configurational Analysis." British Journal of Sociology of Education 33 (2):223-44.

Abstract: Selective and comprehensive school systems vary in both the degree and timing of selection. To study the consequences of such variation, cross-national comparisons are usually undertaken. Given that cultural differences between countries affect pathways and outcomes, apportioning causal influence in such studies can be difficult. In 1970s Britain, selective and comprehensive systems coexisted. This enables us to compare the influences of organisational arrangements without the complication of national cultural differences. We analyse, for children of various abilities, while taking account of gender and class, the effect on achievement of experiencing comprehensive or selective schooling. Assuming that contextual and individual factors work conjuncturally in producing outcomes, we employ Ragin's configurational Qualitative Comparative Analysis. By treating cases in the National Child Development Study as configurations of factors, we are able to analyse the sufficient and necessary conditions for achievement. We find that system differences affect only some high-ability children's educational outcomes.

Glaesser, Judith, and Barry Cooper. 2011. "Selectivity and Flexibility in the German Secondary School System: A Configurational Analysis of Recent Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel." European Sociological Review 27 (5):570-85.

Abstract: Debate continues in many European countries about both equality of opportunity and the continuing wastage of talent, and the ways in which differing systems of secondary schooling contribute to these. Drawing on Turner's concepts of sponsored and contest mobility and on Allmendinger's classification along the dimensions of stratification and selection, we describe the amount of flexibility currently in the German secondary school system which, despite ongoing reforms, is still stratified and selective. Earlier research suggests that the sorting process is socially, not just academically, selective. Building on this, we analyse factors influencing whether individuals make use of the available opportunities for changing track. We find that, rather than alleviating the early social inequality, these opportunities reinforce it since young people from more privileged backgrounds are more likely to benefit from flexibility, whereas disadvantaged individuals are more likely to drop out of the academic track. Most earlier relevant work has used regression-based methods, but we use an alternative configurational method, Ragin's Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). Using this set theoretic approach allows us, when exploring what conjunctions of factors are sufficient conditions for the types of mobility we focus upon, to move beyond the limitations of a 'net effects' approach.

Glaesser, Judith, Richard Gott, Ros Roberts, and Barry Cooper. 2009. "The Roles of Substantive and Procedural Understanding in Open-Ended Science Investigations: Using Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis to Compare Two Different Tasks." Research in Science Education 39 (4):595-624.

Abstract: We examine the respective roles of substantive understanding (i.e., understanding of factual knowledge, concepts, laws and theories) and procedural understanding (an understanding of ideas about evidence; concepts such as reliability and validity, measurement and calibration, data collection, measurement error, the ability to interpret evidence and the like) required to carry out an open-ended science investigation. Our chosen method of analysis is Charles Ragin's Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis which we introduce in the paper. Comparing the performance of undergraduate students on two investigation tasks which differ with regard to the amount of substantive content, we demonstrate that both substantive understanding and an understanding of ideas about evidence are jointly involved in carrying out such tasks competently. It might be expected that substantive knowledge is less important when carrying out an investigation with little substantive demand. However, we find that the contribution of substantive understanding and an understanding of ideas about evidence is remarkably similar for both tasks. We discuss possible reasons for our findings.

Glaesser, Judith, Richard Gott, Ros Roberts, and Barry Cooper. 2009. "Underlying Success in Open-Ended Investigations in Science: Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis to Identify Necessary and Sufficient Conditions." Research in Science & Technological Education 27 (1):5-30.

Abstract: Both substantive (i.e. factual knowledge, concepts, laws and theories) and procedural knowledge (understanding and applying concepts such as reliability and validity, measurement and calibration, data collection, measurement error, the ability to interpret evidence and the like) are involved in carrying out an open-ended science investigation. There is some debate as to whether procedural understanding is of little importance compared to substantive understanding or whether - and this is the view we take - procedural ideas can and should be taught explicitly. We present here findings from a study of undergraduate students who took a module which specifically taught procedural ideas. We employ an innovative method, Charles Ragin's Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), which involves the analysis of necessary and sufficient conditions and conjunctions of causes. Findings from a comparison of the students' performance before and after the teaching and from QCA imply that procedural understanding was indeed a necessary condition for carrying out an open-ended investigation. It was also sufficient when combined with either substantive understanding, prior attainment or both.

Glatman-Freedman, Aharona, Mary-Louise Cohen, Katherine A. Nichols, Robert F. Porges, Ivy Rayos Saludes, Kevin Steffens, Victor G. Rodwin, and David W. Britt. 2010. "Factors Affecting the Introduction of New Vaccines to Poor Nations: A Comparative Study of the Haemophilus Influenzae Type B and Hepatitis B Vaccines." PLoS ONE 5 (11):1-9.

Abstract: Background: A major effort to introduce new vaccines into poor nations of the world was initiated in recent years with the help of the GAVI alliance. The first vaccines introduced have been the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and the hepatitis B (Hep B) vaccines. The introduction of these vaccines during the first phase of GAVI's operations demonstrated considerable variability. We set out to study the factors affecting the introduction of these vaccines. The African Region (AFRO), where new vaccines were introduced to a substantial number of countries during the first phase of GAVI's funding, was selected for this study. Methodology/Principal Findings: GAVI eligible AFRO countries with a population of 0.5 million or more were included in the study. Countries were analyzed and compared for new vaccine introduction, healthcare indicators, financial indicators related to healthcare and country-level Governance Indicators, using One Way ANOVA, correlation analysis and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). Introduction of new vaccines into AFRO nations was associated primarily with high countrylevel Governance Indicator scores. The use of individual Governance Indicator scores, as well as a combined Governance Indicator score we developed, demonstrated similar results. Conclusions/Significance: Our study results indicate that good country-level governance is an imperative pre-requisite for the successful early introduction of new vaccines into poor African nations. Enhanced support measures may be required to effectively introduce new vaccines to countries with low governance scores. The combined governance score we developed may thus constitute a useful tool for helping philanthropic organizations make decisions regarding the type of support needed by different countries to achieve success.

Goicolea, Isabel, Carmen Vives-Cases, Anna-Karin Hurtig, Bruno Marchal, Erica Briones-Vozmediano, Laura Otero-García, Marta García-Quinto, and Miguel San Sebastian. 2015. "Mechanisms that Trigger a Good Health-Care Response to Intimate Partner Violence in Spain. Combining Realist Evaluation and Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approaches." PLoS ONE 10 (8):e0135167.

Abstract: Background: Health care professionals, especially those working in primary health-care services, can play a key role in preventing and responding to intimate partner violence. However, there are huge variations in the way health care professionals and primary health care teams respond to intimate partner violence. In this study we tested a previously developed programme theory on 15 primary health care center teams located in four different Spanish regions: Murcia, C Valenciana, Castilla-León and Cantabria. The aim was to identify the key combinations of contextual factors and mechanisms that trigger a good primary health care center team response to intimate partner violence. Methods: A multiple case-study design was used. Qualitative and quantitative information was collected from each of the 15 centers (cases). In order to handle the large amount of information without losing familiarity with each case, qualitative comparative analysis was undertaken. Conditions (context and mechanisms) and outcomes, were identified and assessed for each of the 15 cases, and solution formulae were calculated using qualitative comparative analysis software. Results: The emerging programme theory highlighted the importance of the combination of each team's self-efficacy, perceived preparation and women-centredness in generating a good team response to intimate partner violence. The use of the protocol and accumulated experience in primary health care were the most relevant contextual/intervention conditions to trigger a good response. However in order to achieve this, they must be combined with other conditions, such as an enabling team climate, having a champion social worker and having staff with training in intimate partner violence. Conclusions: Interventions to improve primary health care teams' response to intimate partner violence should focus on strengthening team's self-efficacy, perceived preparation and the implementation of a woman-centred approach. The use of the protocol combined with a large working experience in primary health care, and other factors such as training, a good team climate, and having a champion social worker on the team, also played a key role. Measures to sustain such interventions and promote these contextual factors should be encouraged.
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Good, Marin, Simon Hurst, Rahel Willener, and Fritz Sager. 2012. "Die Ausgaben der Schweizer Kantone - Eine Fuzzy Set QCA." Swiss Political Science Review 18 (4):452-76.

Abstract: The paper investigates the factors influencing the 26 Swiss Cantons' government expenditures. While the question has been subject to various statistical analyses, the present study has an alternative focus by adopting a configurative perspective. We take the findings of the 2002-study by Vatter and Freitag, as our point of departure and re-analyse their significant variables with regard to their combined impact using updated data from 2000 to 2006 and employing Fuzzy Set QCA. The results underline the important effect of monetary transfers from the federation thus corroborating the Flypaper Effect thesis from Economic Theory.

Gordin, Jorge P. 2001. "The Electoral Fate of Ethnoregionalist Parties in Western Europe: A Boolean Test of Extant Explanations." Scandinavian Political Studies 24 (2):149-70.

Abstract: In this study I argue that we need to rethink some theoretical and empirical considerations related to our understanding of ethnoregionalist (ETR) parties in Western Europe. Research has stressed the strong impact of structural attributes of political systems, mostly electoral systems with proportional representation (PR), on the electoral success of ETR parties. From applying Boolean analysis to compare 12 ETR parties with varied levels of electoral success, it is claimed that the emphasis on type of electoral system as the determinant factor present in the relevant literature on small and regional parties is unjustified and that the presence of a distinctive local language, understood as a facilitating factor to translate regional demands and protest into political influence, is the most critical variable to avoid electoral failure. Moreover, most causal factors are linked through a structure of 'elective affinity' (social and political determinants as lying in closely related bundles) according to the specificity of ethnoregionalist politics. This finding not only sheds light on the fate of ETR parties but may also apply to other ideologically eclectic political parties.

Gran, Brian. 2003. "Charitable Choice Policy and Abused Children: The Benefits and Harms of Going Beyond the Public-Private Dichotomy." International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 23 (11):80-125.

Abstract: Charitable Choice Policy, the heart of President Bush's Faith-Based Initiative, is the direct government funding of religious organizations for the purpose of carrying out government programs. The Bush presidential administration has called for the application of Charitable Choice Policy to all kinds of social services. Advocates for child-abuse victims contend that the Bush Charitable Choice Policy would further dismantle essential social services provided to abused children. Others have argued Charitable Choice Policy is unconstitutional because it crosses the boundary separating church and state. Rather than drastically altering the U.S. social-policy landscape, this paper demonstrates that the Bush Charitable Choice Policy already is in place for childabuse services across many of the fifty states. One reason this phenomenon is ignored is due to the reliance on the public-private dichotomy for studying social policies and services. This paper contends that relying on the pUblic-private dichotomy leads researchers to overlook important configurations of actors and institutions that provide services to abused children. It offers an alternate framework to the public-private dichotomy useful for the analysis of social policy in general and, in particular, Charitable Choice Policy affecting services to abused children. Employing a new methodological approach, fuzzy sets analysis, demonstrates the degree to which social services for abused children match ideal types. It suggests relationships between religious organizations and governments are essential to the provision of scrvices to abused children in the United States. Given the direction in which the Bush Charitable Choice Policy will push social-policy programs, scholars should ask whether abused children will be placed in circumstances that other social groups will not and why.

Gran, Brian, and Dawn Aliberti. 2003. "The Office of the Children's Ombudsperson: Children's Rights and Social-Policy Innovation." International Journal of the Sociology of Law 31 (2):89-106.

Abstract: A potential key to the future of children's rights is the ombudsperson. In 1981, Norway became the first government to establish an office of a children's ombudsperson, which has statutory powers to protect children and enforce their rights. This paper represents the first cross-national analysis of the offices of children's ombudsperson. We employ Qualitative Comparative Analysis, which is based on Boolean algebra, to examine explanations why a national office of children's ombudsperson has or has not been established in 193 countries up to the year 2000. Our research suggests social policy innovation responds to need and is contingent on country wealth, but is mediated by either strong political rights or subscription to international treaties. This work indicates future research should consider subsequent establishment of offices of children's ombudsperson and the rights of children an ombudsperson seeks to enforce.

Grandori, Anna, and Santi Furnari. 2008. "A Chemistry of Organization: Combinatory Analysis and Design." Organization Studies 29 (3):459-85.

Abstract: This paper is a response to the call for models of organization design as a science revealing the inner composition of organization and specifying the laws to be respected when crafting it. It maintains that the needed science is a chemistry of organization, addressing the combination of 'organizational elements' playing a role analogous to that of chemical elements in composing a variety of substances. Drawing both on classic organization design theory and on configurational and complementarity-based approaches, the paper specifies a set of basic organizational elements and a set of combinatory laws regulating their effective combinations. Testable propositions are derived on the necessary and sufficient conditions that the composition of organizations should have respect for achieving high levels of efficiency and innovation. These propositions are tested empirically on a sample of firms, using an innovative application of Boolean algebra.

Grant, Don, Alfonso Morales, and Jeffrey J. Sallaz. 2009. "Pathways to Meaning: A New Approach to Studying Emotions at Work." American Journal of Sociology 115 (2):327-64.

Abstract: Research on the emotional consequences of interactive service work remains inconclusive in large part because scholars have not analyzed the mechanisms that lead frontline employees to adopt the meanings disseminated by their employers. The authors argue that the theoretical framework best suited for remedying this situation is the negotiated order perspective. It suggests that whether employees adopt a corporate-sanctioned meaning, and with what emotional effect, depends on the conjunction of several social conditions. The authors also propose a novel analytical strategy that can identify these conditional pathways and formalize the combinatorial logic of the negotiated order perspective: fuzzy-set techniques. To illustrate the utility of this approach, the article examines a university hospital that has tried to create a more meaningful and emotionally rewarding work environment for its nursing staff. Consistent with expectations, findings show that employees can embrace the same corporate-sanctioned meaning under different sets of conditions and with different emotional consequences.

Grant, Don, Kathleen O'Neil, and Laura Stephens. 2009. "Pluralistic Ignorance Among Assembled Peers." Sociological Perspectives 52 (1):59-79.

Abstract: Sociologists have long been interested in pluralistic ignorance - situations where a majority of individuals assume that most of their peers think differently than themselves when, in fact, their attitudes are similar. Recently, sociologists have suggested that pluralistic ignorance is especially likely to occur when peers are gathered together and may explain why group members often refrain from discussing their ultimate concerns with each other. However, researchers have not indicated what factors besides physical proximity might create pluralistic ignorance. Nor have they employed methods that can specify how causal factors combine to produce multiple routes to pluralistic ignorance. To remedy this situation, this article suggests several factors that may make others' opinions more or less transparent. It also proposes an analytical strategy that can identify which combinations of these factors are associated with misperceptions and illustrates how it might be applied. Implications of this study for future research are discussed.

Grant, Don, Mary N. Trautner, Liam Downey, and Lisa Thiebaud. 2010. "Bringing the Polluters back in: Environmental Inequality and the Organization of Chemical Production." American Sociological Review 75 (4):479-504.

Abstract: Environmental justice scholars have suggested that because chemical plants and other hazardous facilities emit more pollutants where they face the least resistance, disadvantaged communities face a special health risk. In trying to determine whether race or income has the bigger impact on a neighborhood's exposure to pollution, however, scholars tend to overlook the facilities themselves and the effect of their characteristics on emissions. In particular, how do the characteristics of facilities and their surrounding communities jointly shape pollution outcomes? We propose a new line of environmental justice research that focuses on facilities and how their features combine with communities' features to create dangerous emissions. Using novel fuzzy-set analysis techniques and the EPA's newly developed Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators, we test the influence of facility and community factors on chemical plants' health-threatening emissions. Contrary to the idea that community characteristics have singular, linear effects, findings show that facility and community factors combine in a variety of ways to produce risky emissions. We speculate that as chemical firms experiment with different ways of producing goods and externalizing pollution costs, new "recipes of risk" are likely to emerge. The question, then, will no longer be whether race or income matters most, but in which of these recipes do they matter and how.

Grassi, Davide. 2004. "La Survie des Régimes démocratiques: Une AQQC des Démocraties de la "troisième Vague en Amérique du Sud." Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée 11 (1):17-33.

Abstract: Cet article applique une nouvelle procédure de simplification de l'AQQC pour identifier les conditions favorisant la survie des démocraties de la "troisième vague" en Amérique du Sud. Nos résultats montrent que leur endurance a été crucialement déterminée par les conditions de légitimité et, en particulier, par la mémoire des répressions exercées par les régimes autoritaires précédents. En outre, en comparaison avec certaines démocraties plus enracinées (établies lors des vagues démocratiques précédentes) dans la région, les derniers régimes démocratiques apparaissent tout à fait originaux. Alors que les conditions institutionnelles et économiques (un système partisan fort et cohésif, la signature d'accords politiques, ou encore le développement économique) ont été fondamentales pour l'explication de l'endurance des premières démocraties, elles n'ont joué qu'un rôle mineur dans les démocraties de la troisième vague.

Grauvogel, Julia, and Christian von Soest. 2014. "Claims to Legitimacy Count: Why Sanctions Fail to Instigate Democratisation in Authoritarian Regimes." European Journal of Political Research 53 (4):635-53.

Abstract: International sanctions are one of the most commonly used tools to instigate democratisation in the post-Cold War era. However, despite long-term sanction pressure by the European Union, the United States and/or the United Nations, non-democratic rule has proven to be extremely persistent. Which domestic and international factors account for the regimes' ability to resist external pressure? Based on a new global dataset on sanctions from 1990 to 2011, the results of a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) provide new insights for the research on sanctions and on authoritarian regimes. Most significantly, sanctions strengthen authoritarian rule if the regime manages to incorporate their existence into its legitimation strategy. Such an unintended 'rally-round-the-flag' effect occurs where sanctions are imposed on regimes that possess strong claims to legitimacy and have only limited economic and societal linkages to the sender of sanctions.
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Gray, Clive, and Melvin Wingfield. 2011. "Are Governmental Culture Departments Important? An Empirical Investigation." International Journal of Cultural Policy 17 (5):590-604.

Abstract: It has been often claimed that governmental culture departments are not particularly significant or important for governments as a whole. The extent to which this is true is investigated through a combination of quantitative and qualitative assessments of departmental significance using the United Kingdom and the Department for Culture, Media and Sport as a case study. Departments are assessed across a number of criteria incorporating expenditure, law-making, policy centrality, ministerial career trajectories, press coverage, departmental age, executive centrality, manifesto coverage and staffing patterns. On these the British example demonstrates that culture departments are not significantly important for governments as a whole. The comparative implications of this finding are identified, and potential new research areas are indicated.

Greckhamer, Thomas. 2011. "Cross-Cultural Differences in Compensation Level and Inequality across Occupations: A Set-Theoretic Analysis." Organization Studies 32 (1):85-115.

Abstract: Compensation level and compensation inequality, as central aspects of modern organizations, are vital for organization studies. Previous research has investigated various aspects of compensation systems, but few studies have taken a cross-cultural perspective. I address this need for cross-cultural research by studying compensation and culture utilizing a configurational approach, investigating combinations of cultural and macro-environmental attributes associated with differences in compensation level and compensation inequality. I apply fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) to analyze country-level data encompassing four occupational groups (cleaners, secretaries, mid-level managers, and senior managers) from 44 countries. Findings show configurations of cultural dimensions, development, and welfare state that are sufficient for high compensation level and compensation inequality among these four occupations. Implications for future cross-cultural research on compensation are discussed.

Gregware, Peter R. 1994. "Courts, Criminal Process, and AIDS: The Institutionalization of Culture in Legal Decision Making." Law & Policy 16 (3):341-62.

Abstract: This study views legal process as part of an interactive web of social and cultural relationships. While law may create public policy, its own creation is part of a complex system of institutional deference and subjective behaviors which ref/ect a larger cultural context. The fears engendered by AIDS help to highlight the underlying cultural biases and patterns of disease scare management ingrained in legal policymaking. These patterns are again enhanced when placed in a criminal context where the resident focus is one of controlling those who precipitate anxiety. Using a method of qualitative comparative analysis, this study concludes that the historical patterns of bias and institutional deference in disease scare management continues in modern criminal court process.

Griffin, Larry J., Christopher Botsko, Ana-Maria Wahl, and Larry W. Isaac. 1991. "Theoretical Generality, Case Particularity: Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Trade-Union Growth and Decline." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 32 (1-2):110-36.

Abstract: This papers makes three points and offers one demonstration. First, the selection of cases in comparative research ideally should capture all of the variation that exists in a theorized population of interest, and not be based merely on data convenience, the presence or absence of the instance under analysis, or assumptions about causal invariance or the representativeness of cases. Second, partly due to flawed case-selection criteria and partly due to overly generous or overly restrictive logic used in determining causality, neither traditional "small-N" qualitative designs nor conventional "Iarge-N" quantitative research designs are optimal for many comparative problems. Third, a relatively new causal comparative methodology based on a data reduction logic rooted in Boolean algebra - Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) - appears of substantial utility in those research sites with relatively large number of cases, causal heterogeneity, and the expectation of delimited theoretical generalizations. These points are then demonstrated through a QCA analysis of comparative patterns of growth and decline of trade union membership across the 18 largest, politically stable capitalist democracies in the 1970s and 1980s.
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Griffin, Larry J., Christopher Caplinger, Kathryn J. Lively, Nancy L. Malcom, Darren McDaniel, and Candice Nelsen. 1997. "Comparative-Historical Analysis and Scientific Inference: Disfranchisement in the U.S. South as a Test Case." Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History 30 (1):13-27.

1.Paragraph: Our purpose here is to foster a mutually constructive and empirically grounded conversation among three parties-(1) selected aspects of the history of constitutional-legislative disfranchisement in the U.S. South during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries; (2) comparative-historical research design and analysis, with a particular nod to qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) (Ragin 1987); and (3) the methodological prescriptions offered by political scientists Gary King, Robert O. Keohane, and Sidney Verba in their controversial 1994 book, Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research.
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Gross, Martha, and Michael Garvin. 2011. "Structuring PPP Toll-Road Contracts to Achieve Public Pricing Objectives." Engineering Project Organization Journal 1 (2):143-56.

Abstract: Although the success of public-private partnership (PPP) contracts is often evaluated on financial terms, an even more fundamental question is whether these contracts achieve the public objectives for which they were designed. The state's responsibility as contracting agency for public infrastructure gives it a crucial role in defining these goals, which fall into multiple categories and can vary for each procurement. For toll-road PPPs, the category of pricing objectives is a significant component of these broader public goals. Such pricing objectives often include (1) achieving an affordable toll rate, (2) managing congestion and (3) minimizing state subsidy/maximizing up-front payment from concessionaires. To identify the specific PPP contract elements which support these pricing-related objectives, the method of qualitative comparative analysis was applied. Through this recently developed approach for evaluating qualitative data quantitatively, patterns of PPP contract strategies which correspond to the three common pricing objectives above were identified through evaluation of 18 projects throughout the world. The analysis indicated, for instance, that PPPs targeting the objective of affordable tolls typically exhibited contracts with downside risk-sharing provisions or longer contract durations, while toll roads which prioritized congestion management used variable tolling but frequently avoided such downside risk-sharing clauses. These results provide a tool to aid public-sector decision-makers in selecting contract strategies which facilitate the achievement of desired pricing objectives for future PPPs.
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Gulbas, Lauren E., and Luis H. Zayas. 2015. "Examining the Interplay Among Family, Culture, and Latina Teen Suicidal Behavior." Qualitative Health Research 25 (5):689-99.

Abstract: In this article, we explore the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results reveal that Latina teens who attempted suicide lacked the resources to forge meaningful social ties. Without the tools to bridge experiences of cultural contradiction, the girls in our study described feeling isolated and alone. Under such conditions, adolescents turned to behaviors aimed at self-destruction. Unlike their peers who attempted suicide, adolescent Latinas with no lifetime history of attempted suicide were able to mobilize resources in ways that balanced experiences of acculturative tension by creating supportive relationships with other individuals.

Gunawan, Dedy Darsono, and Kun-Huang Huarng. 2015. "Viral Effects of Social Network and Media on Consumers' Purchase Intention." Journal of Business Research 68 (11):2237-41.

Abstract: This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) method to data from social network media (SNM) users' surveys to identify possible SNM viral effects on consumers' purchase intention. SEM assesses the relationship between the criteria; fsQCA assesses the cause-and-effect process. Data from 36 valid variables validate the research model. This research surveys SNM users who use at least three major SNM platforms (i.e. Facebook, Instagram, and Youtube). Combination of Theory Reasoned Action (TRA), Information Adaption Model (IAM), perceived risk, and social interaction as additional external constructs shows source credibility and social influence critically affect attitude and subjective norms, which lead to purchase intention. SEM results show that social integration has no direct effect on subjective norms. However, fsQCA results show that social influence together with perceived risk in SNM sites affects consumers' purchase intention.

Guzman-Concha, Cesar. 2015. "Radical Social Movements in Western Europe: A Configurational Analysis." Social Movement Studies 14 (6):668-91.

Abstract: There has been little comparative research on the differences across radical social movements in the context of consolidated democracies. This paper analyses the squatting movement, as an exemplary case of contemporary radical movement. This study aims to identify the causal contexts that explain the differences of strengths within these movements across 52 large cities in Western Europe. It examines three main hypotheses drawn from the literature on social movements concerning the characteristics of political systems, the availability of resources and the presence of economic grievances. We use fuzzy sets qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to identify configurations of causal conditions. The findings show that diverse contexts (multi-causation) lead to strong movements. A first causal context combines grievances, resources and closed or unresponsive institutions, and is typically found in Southern European cities. A second context highlights the presence of robust far-right parties in combination with less severe grievances and relative scarcity of resources, and is typically found in Northern European cities. These findings demonstrate that resources and grievances are quasi-necessary conditions for strong radical movements, although polarization can lead to a similar outcome where these characteristics are not present.

Hackett, Simon, and Abi Taylor. 2014. "Decision Making in Social Work with Children and Families: The Use of Experiential and Analytical Cognitive Processes." British Journal of Social Work 44 (8):2182-99.

Abstract: Documentary analysis of ninety-eight core assessments of children and families was used as a means of investigating social workers' cognitive decision-making processes. Follow-up semi-structured interviews were carried out with the fifty social workers responsible for completing these assessments. Particular focus was given to investigating the use of experiential and analytical decision making and the effects of case and environmental characteristics. Statistical tests and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) were used in order to explore the causal mechanisms affecting the decision process. Whilst decision making was primarily experiential, relying on social workers' prior casework experience and intuition, there was fluidity between modes of cognition. Typically, analytical cognition was used as a check or backup to experiential decision strategies. Variations in decision-making strategies were found due to a range and combination of case characteristics and environmental factors. Of particular importance were the dynamic nature of the decision environment, whether the family was previously known to social services, the level of risk involved, the familiarity of the worker with the case type and whether strong evidence was needed to support decision making. Implications for social work policy and practice are discussed.

Hafner-Fink, Mitja, Brina Malnar, and Samo Uhan. 2013. "The National Contexts of Post-National Citizenship." Czech Sociological Review 49 (6):867-901.

Abstract: The article contributes to the literature on the changing concept of citizenship in the process of globalisation. It sets out from the thesis that the classic concepts of citizenship, which are linked to the nation state, are slowly but steadily losing their monopoly on explaining the relationship between individuals, the political community and government. Based on a theoretical discussion of the new models of citizenship, the authors seek to identify the elements of 'post-national' citizenship. The main research goal of the analysis is to discover the conditions in which elements of post-national citizenship are most likely to occur. The analysis is based on aggregated individual (survey) data (from the ESS 2008 and the EVS 2008) and macro contextual data on European Union countries. On the macro (country) level, the authors conduct a hierarchical cluster analysis and crisp set QCA and make the following findings. First, two groups of countries are formed: (a) a fairly homogeneous group of six 'post-national' citizenship countries; and (b) a more heterogeneous group of classic citizenship countries. Second, 'post-national' citizenship is to be expected in countries in which the following conditions are combined: on the one hand, secularised and post-industrial societies with less emphasis on a knowledge society, and on the other hand, societies with a stable national status where knowledge is important.

Hagan, John, and Suzanne Hansford-Bowles. 2005. "From Resistance to Activism: The Emergence and Persistence of Activism among American Vietnam War Resisters in Canada." Social Movement Studies 4 (3):231-59.

Abstract: The concept of 'emergent ties' is often used to refer to the role of social networks in activating social movements. Yet pre-existing network ties were usually not a factor in initiating decisions of 50,000 draft-age American youth to migrate to Canada during the American Vietnam War. These youth often learned about the possibility of migrating to Canada through the news media and a widely distributed draft resistance manual. Once in Canada, they often became involved in networks that directed and sustained their movement activity. This suggests that the emergence and persistence of activism may often be distinct. This paper argues that a transformation process that leads to activism is often a life stage specific process, usually in late adolescence or early adulthood, whose explanation requires detailed attention to everyday behavioral activity; while the evolution and persistence of activism is often a life course persistent process that covers a longer period and involves the influence of more generically structured network ties. These patterns are demonstrated in a fuzzy set analysis (FSA) of early and longer term political activism in the lives of Americans who migrated to Toronto during the Vietnam War. We find that for both men and women, helping others was a necessary experience in transforming the resistance involved in this migration into collectively organized anti-war activism, and that a longer term tendency of the women who migrated to Canada to remain more involved than men in social movements is a product of their continuing contacts with the persons involved in their earlier activism. The results of our research underline the importance of distinguishing life stage specific and life course persistent processes in the study of social movements, and more generally that the study of social movements and the life course have much to contribute to one another.

Hall, Charles. 1998. "Institutional Solutions for Governing the Global Commons: Design Factors and Effectiveness." The Journal of Environment & Development 7 (2):86-114.

Abstract: Rather than relying on authoritative political structures to solve the dilemmas of governing the global commons, institutional perspectives show that governance can occur in situations where, at first glance, individual incentives for short-term economic gain seem to proscribe collective action. In this regard, a theoretical framework drawing on the study of common-pool resources explains effective institutional governance as the combination of internal design features and exogenous issue-area factors. This study raises the question of which institutional design principles provide for effective solutions for governing the commons. It does so in the context of international fisheries commissions. These institutions are often less than adequate conservers offish. Through an analysis of institutional goals and objectives, this study identifies some design features of fisheries institutions associated with this lack of conservation effectiveness, while at the same time identifying the institutional sources of the continuity afforded to participants by these enduring institutions.

Halme, Minna, and Maria Korpela. 2014. "Responsible Innovation Toward Sustainable Development in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Resource Perspective." Business Strategy and the Environment 23 (8):547-66.

Abstract: What resources do small enterprises need to develop responsible innovations that enhance sustainable development? Does lack of resources prevent innovation toward sustainability in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or can innovations be created with scarce resources? This study investigates environmentally and socially responsible innovations of SMEs from a resource perspective, based on empirical data from 13 Nordic SMEs. The findings indicate that SMEs can create responsible innovations with very different resource combinations. The most common resource combination comprises equity, research and development cooperation, networks, industry knowledge and reputation. Except for financial capital in the form of equity, which appears a necessary condition for responsible innovation from SMEs, resource needs vary between technological and business model innovations. Creating business model innovations appears to be possible with scarce resources, at the very least with equity and social capital. Environmental technology innovations call for more abundant resource combinations. In particular industry knowledge appears to be a key resource for such innovations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment

Hamidov, Ahmad, Andreas Thiel, and Dimitrios Zikos. 2015. "Institutional Design in Transformation: A Comparative Study of Local Irrigation Governance in Uzbekistan." Environmental Science & Policy 53 (0):175-91.

Abstract: The irrigation sector constitutes the backbone of Uzbekistan's economy, providing social and economic stability in the region. The sector collapsed with the fall of the Soviet Union, due to worsening of infrastructure conditions causing tensions among resource users. Subsequent irrigation management reforms were implemented in a top-down manner. More than a decade after the initial reforms - which established local Water Consumers Association (WCA) and transferred operation and maintenance responsibilities for on-farm irrigation canals - the poor performance of these associations is still apparent, illustrating the heritage of the strong role of state agencies in Uzbek water management that still affects collective irrigation management today. This paper identifies the necessary and sufficient conditions for successfully managing common pool resources (CPRs) and, more specifically, irrigation canal maintenance in the rural Bukhara region of Uzbekistan. Fifteen WCAs were examined regarding conditions that may facilitate successful irrigation canal maintenance. Methods involved focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with the associations concerned. Data gathered was analyzed using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. The results indicate that two paths of local factors can lead to well-maintained irrigation canals: (1) the combination of appropriate chairmanship skills with sustainable resource appropriation or (2) the combination of appropriate chairmanship skills with the presence of effective participatory governance. The results also illustrate the role of path-dependence and traditional co-production of irrigation management in Uzbekistan.
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Hansen, Janus, and Agnes Allansdottir. 2011. "Assessing the Impacts of Citizen Participation in Science Governance: Exploring New Roads in Comparative Analysis." Science and Public Policy 38 (8):609-17.

Abstract: In this paper we explore new avenues of analysis on the thorny issue of the impact of participatory technology assessment (PTA). We apply qualitative comparative analysis to data abstracted from a series of detailed country case studies of policy-making on xenotransplantation to explore which factors are decisive for policy outcomes. Contrary to our expectations that PTAs would contribute to restrictive policy outcomes, we find that this is not the case and that a combination of politicisation and public vigilance is pivotal to explaining policy outcomes. Further, our analysis was symmetrical in attempting to account for both permissive and restrictive policies. We conclude that the paper makes both a substantial and a methodological contribution to the literature on public participation in technology assessment and policy-making.

Harkreader, Steve, and Allen W. Imershein. 1999. "The Conditions for State Action in Florida's Health-Care Market." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 40 (2):159-74.

Abstract: Despite the lack of confidence in government agencies to operate a nationalized health-care system in the United States, government agencies have significantly influenced the distribution and financing of health-care services in the market. Using the State of Florida as a case study, we examine the conditions under which a state health-care agency can consistently influence health-care market arrangements. We examined records from Florida's legislative sessions between 1965 and 1993 focusing on 27 legislative initiatives to involve the state's health-care agencies in the health-care services market. Using Boolean qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), we examined the conditions that facilitated or inhibited legislative policy initiatives for state action in Florida's health-care services market. The cohesiveness of state administrative agency and legislative leadership is of primary importance. Fragmented interests among health-care providers and fiscally legitimate policy positions, whether those of state agencies or health-care providers, are important enabling factors for state action.

Harriss-White, Barbara, Wendy Olsen, Penny Vera-Sanso, and V. Suresh. 2013. "Multiple Shocks and Slum Household Economies in South India." Economy and Society 42 (3):398-429.

Abstract: This research uses a fresh perspective to trace the impact of multiple economic, financial and environmental shocks on slum-dwellers in the South Indian city of Chennai from November 2008 to May 2009. It examines the effects of a concatenation of events scaled from the global to the local, consisting of economic shocks (speculation in financial, fuel and food markets) and extremes of rainfall and temperature, on a cross-section of the urban poor (differentiated by age and gender), taking in household dynamics and work status. The paper also traces the rapidity with which these shocks transfer from the global economy to slum settlements. The method involved twelve-month recall over three survey periods during the shocks and their aftermath, a comparison of emic and etic measures of economic well-being and the comparative use of mixed methods. This research is also the first application of qualitative comparative analysis to slum conditions.

Hartmann, Christof, and Jörg Kemmerzell. 2010. "Understanding Variations in Party Bans in Africa." Democratization 17 (4):642-65.

Abstract: The article is interested in the main reasons for the emergence and enforcement of party bans in sub-Saharan Africa. While the introduction of legal provisions that allow for the banning of particularistic political parties is the standard on the African continent, few countries actually use these provisions and actually deny registration or ban existing parties. We use qualitative comparative analysis to compare the introduction of party bans and the patterns of implementation across all sub-Saharan countries. Our analysis shows that structural conditions do matter. Countries that did not introduce legal provisions to ban political parties combine a British colonial background and a stronger tradition of multi-party democracy. With regard to the decision to actually use these provisions our analysis shows the interaction of two conditions to be decisive: Countries which have experienced ethnically motivated violence in the past and which are at the same time 'liberalizing' their regimes rely on party bans to restrict political party competition.
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Harvey, Frank P. 1999. "Practicing Coercion: Revisiting Successes and Failures Using Boolean Logic and Comparative Methods." Journal of Conflict Resolution 43 (6):840-71.

Abstract: When do coercive threats succeed or fail? Does success depend on a uniform set of necessary conditions or do core prerequisites vary depending on context? If prerequisites vary, are some combinations more likely than others to lead to success or provoke challenges? The evidence to date is far from definitive. Critics cite proof from comparative case studies that rational deterrence has failed as a strategy and theory, whereas proponents have compiled an equally impressive body of material to support the same theory. Because each side offers compelling reasons to accept its respective, often contradictory, interpretations of events in relevant crises, the debate over deterrence is not likely to be resolved solely with reference to historical records. This article reevaluates the "crucial" evidence put forward by Lebow and Stein in what has become the most widely cited critique of rational deterrence theory. Viewed through the prism of necessity and sufficiency, their data produce stronger support for the theory's core hypotheses than corresponding evidence compiled by proponents. The author develops this argument further by applying Boolean logic and set theory to data compiled by Huth and Russett and Lebow and Stein. Boolean minimization techniques are used to derive models from competing interpretations of behavior in these cases, which are then compared and evaluated in terms of the theory's predictions.

Haworth-Hoeppner, Susan. 2000. "The Critical Shapes of Body Image: The Role of Culture and Family in the Production of Eating Disorders." Journal of Marriage and the Family 62 (1):212-27.

Abstract: Although research has pointed to the influence of culture and family in the etiology of earing disorders, few, studies have examined how these influences conjoin in this process. This research explores how the family mediates cultural ideas about thinness and how the family conveys these messages to family members. Using a grounded theory approach, open-ended interviews were conducted with 32 White, middle-class women (with and without eating disorders) on the topic of body image and eating problems. In conjunction with this method, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was also performed to identify family characteristics, and their specific combinations, that were associated with eating disorders. The findings indicate that a critical family environment, coercive parental control, and a dominating discourse on weight in the household are salient conditions, and their specific configurations are discussed in relationship to current theoretical conceptualizations regarding the influences of culture and family in the production of eating disorders.

Haynes, Philip. 2011. "Are Scandinavian Countries Different? A Comparison of Relative Incomes for Older People in OECD Nations." Social Policy & Administration 45 (2):114-30.

Abstract: Recent research has cast some doubt on the consistency of models that isolate Scandinavian countries as different to other nations in terms of egalitarian welfare states. For example, it has been argued that if occupational welfare polices have their contribution to national welfare better accounted for in comparative models, or if there is a focus on specific aspects of welfare coverage, then Scandinavian welfare states look less different to other European countries. Using case-based methods that try to balance the demand for generalizations and the qualitative integrity of the case, this research examines the specific case of income protection for the older population post-retirement, to see if Scandinavian countries emerge as consistently different when compared with other OECD nations. Scandinavia can be clearly identified in a separate cluster, but it is not alone and other countries also share its similarities. In particular, Scandinavia emerges in a cluster that provides more income replacement and protection for women. In part, this is reinforced by the high rate of labour participation by women in Scandinavian countries. However, there is little evidence of Scandinavian countries retaining noticeable differences and divergence in income protection policies for men.

Haynes, Philip. 2015. "The European Single Currency Project and the Concept of Convergence for European Welfare States - The Ideal and the Reality." Social Policy & Administration 49 (4):466-89.

Abstract: Using a country comparative case based methodology that combines the methods of Cluster Analysis and Qualitative Comparative Analysis, this article examines whether there is any quantitative evidence that countries which are members of the euro currency have experienced a convergence of the outputs and outcome of the European welfare state for euro member countries. The analysis concludes there is little evidence of a holistic euro based convergence of either welfare outputs or outcome. It is argued that outputs such as full employment, equity of health care provision, poverty reduction and educational attainment might reasonably be expected to converge in the longer term, but only if the euro crisis results in a much more planned and coordinated interventionist policy approach to the macro political economy. An outcome, however, such as subjective well-being, is potentially influenced by other historical and cultural factors and is only partially determined by macro political economic policy.

Haynes, Philip, Laura Banks, and Michael Hill. 2013. "Social networks amongst older people in OECD countries: a qualitatative [sic] comparative analysis." Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy 29 (1):15-27.

Abstract: Using data from The International Social Survey Programme this paper compares the social networks of those aged 50 and above in 18 countries. Two different types of networks are conceptualised: family contact and community participation. Using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), international sets are established for four groups of countries. Set one includes countries that only satisfy a minimal number of social network thresholds (France, Norway, Great Britain, Denmark and the USA). Set two includes a homogeneous group of countries with above-threshold rates of marriage and community participation (Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Austria and Canada). Other separate sets with stronger social network features comprise Eastern European countries (set three) and Southern Europe countries (set four) in these sets, family contacts are above the international country average but community participation is less strong. Country sets with low comparative threshold scores in the QCA are argued to be likely to be in greater need of government care policy interventions.
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Haynes, Philip, Michael Hill, and Laura Banks. 2010. "Older People's Family Contacts and Long-term Care Expenditure in OECD Countries: A Comparative Approach Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Social Policy & Administration 44 (1):67-84.

Abstract: In recent decades there has been a suggestion that public and private long-term care (LTC) expenditure might be replacing traditional family care for older people. The decline of family contact is known to be more advanced in some OECD countries than others, with southern Europe identified as where family contact is still strong. This article explores at a country level whether there is an association between levels of expenditure on long-term care and the availability of family contacts. Qualitative Comparative Analysis is used as a comparative method, so as to use national quantitative indicators with a small sample of countries. An association between higher levels of family contact and lower levels of expenditure on LTC is suggested, but it is weakened by a number of untypical cases. Countries that defy this relationship have government care policies that seek to promote informal social care through the family contact that continues to be available. Austria, Canada, Great Britain and Japan are discussed in this context.
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Heikkila, Tanya. 2004. "Institutional Boundaries and Common-Pool Resource Management: A Comparative Analysis of Water Management Programs in California." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 23 (1):97-117.

Abstract: Policymakers and academics often identify institutional boundaries as one of the factors that shape the capacity of jurisdictions to manage natural resources such as water, forests, and scenic lands. This article examines two key bodies of literature - common-pool resource management theory and local public economy theory - to explain how the boundaries of political jurisdictions affect natural resource management. Two empirical methods were used to test hypotheses from the literature, using a study of water management programs in California. The results demonstrate that institutional boundaries that coincide with natural resources are likely to be associated with the implementation of more effective resource management programs. At the same time, where jurisdictions can control through coordination, they can also facilitate more effective resource management where jurisdictions do not match resource boundaries.

Henik, Erika. 2015. "Understanding Whistle-Blowing: A Set-Theoretic Approach." Journal of Business Research 68 (2):442-50.

Abstract: This paper introduces fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) to the study of whistle-blowing and represents the first attempt to apply set-theoretic tools to this phenomenon. I submit 60 episodes drawn from 50 in-depth interviews with whistle-blowers and "inactive observers" to fsQCA analysis. The results point to two paths that can lead to a whistle-blowing outcome, as well as an important contextual factor that facilitates the decision to whistle-blow or remain an "inactive observer." These discoveries suggest that no path-dependent course toward whistle-blowing or inactive observation exists, nor does an a priori profile of whistle-blowers whom organizations can attempt to screen out during recruitment.

Hervas-Oliver, Jose-Luis, Francisca Sempere-Ripoll, and Ivan Arribas. 2015. "Asymmetric Modeling of Organizational Innovation." Journal of Business Research 68 (12):2654-62.

Abstract: This study revisits the theory, data, and analysis in Hervas-Oliver and Sempere-Ripoll (2014) and applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA) to organizational innovation effects and the influence on them of technological innovations. The influence of technological innovations (product and process) on organizational innovation and its effects is an inconclusive debate. Using fuzzy set comparative qualitative analysis (fs/QCA) on Hervas-Oliver and Sempere-Ripoll's (2014) 9,369 organizational innovators, the present study offers more complex and nuanced antecedent conditions relating to organizational innovation beyond Hervas-Oliver and Sempere-Ripoll (2014) analysis based on traditional multiple regression symmetric method. This present study finds different sufficient configurations or combinations of causal antecedent conditions which improve the importance of organizational innovation effects. New evidence from fs/QCA extends our knowledge about the impact of technological innovation on the importance of organizational innovation effects, correcting and extending previous incomplete and myopic results based on symmetric (regression) methods.

Hess, David J., and Quan D. Mai. 2014. "Renewable Electricity Policy in Asia: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Factors Affecting Sustainability Transitions." Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 12 (0):31-46.

Abstract: A qualitative comparative analysis was undertaken of 18 Asian countries to determine factors that influence the pace of their sustainability transitions toward increased renewable energy for electricity. We develop a policy index based on renewable electricity targets, feed-in tariffs, and emissions trading schemes in these countries. Countries with a relatively low level of current renewable electricity generation but with relatively high scores on the policy index are wealthier and more democratic. Likewise, countries with a relatively high level of renewable electricity generation and with lagging renewable electricity policy tend to be poorer, more authoritarian, and endowed with higher levels of fossil-fuel resources. Thus, our analysis points to factors other than GDP per capita that could explain the relative stasis or progress of a country toward a sustainable energy transition. Implications for the literature on the political and societal (or "landscape") dimensions of sustainability transitions are discussed.
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Hicks, Alexander, Joya Misra, and Tang Nah Ng. 1995. "The Programmatic Emergence of the Social Security State." American Sociological Review 60 (3):329-49.

Abstract: Using a theoretical framework that stresses political institutions, we examine the consolidation of income-security programs during the formation of the welfare state around the turn of the century. Boolean analyses and ancillary historical materials indicate distinct routes to consolidation of social insurance programs. A "Bismarckian" path centers on strategic co-optive responses of patriarchal states and state elites to working-class mobilization. A second path, a "Lib-Lab" route, centers on strategic incorporation of labor parties and/or unions into governing Liberal coalitions. A possible third path involves reforms by Catholic parties governing patriarchal, unitary states confronting working-class challenges. The virtual absence of leftist governments before the Great Depression has challenged claims for major impacts of the working class on welfare-state formation through the 1920s. However, we find that mobilization of the working class was integral to each conjuncture that generated the adoption of social security programs during the 1880-1930 period. Worker mobilization combined with such varied and distinctly state institutions as patriarchal states and Liberal party governments in ways that advanced welfare states.
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Ho, Hillbun, and Ruichang Lu. 2015. "Performance Implications of Marketing Exploitation and Exploration: Moderating Role of Supplier Collaboration." Journal of Business Research 68 (5):1026-34.

Abstract: While previous studies suggest that firms can achieve superior performance by being ambidextrous - engaging in exploitative and exploratory activities simultaneously - research is scarce on the performance implications of pursuing ambidexterity in firms' marketing function. This investigation considers firms' ambidexterity in marketing to consist of exploratory and exploitative marketing activities and examines the individual and joint impact of these activities on market performance. In addition, this investigation proposes and tests the conjecture that firms' collaborations with suppliers would moderate the impact of marketing exploitation and exploration on firm performance differently. The findings from surveys of key informants in 220 firms show that pursuing marketing exploitation and exploration simultaneously hurts firms' market performance. Supplier collaboration enhances the impact of marketing exploration but weakens the impact of marketing exploitation on market performance.

Hodson, Randy. 2004. "A Meta-Analysis of Workplace Ethnographies." Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 33 (1):4-38.

Abstract: Workplace ethnographies suggest many hypotheses about the effects of organizational characteristics on employee attitudes and behaviors. These hypotheses, however, are difficult to evaluate by considering each ethnography individually. The current article uses qualitative comparative analysis of content-coded data from the full population of workplace ethnographies to provide a fuller evaluation of the lessons these ethnographies have to offer. The hypothesis that women are happy and quiescent workers receives only limited support. Women actually evidence less satisfaction and pride in their work than men, but they are more cooperative and less conflictual than men. Autonomy is the most consistent determinant of positive workplace attitudes, a finding that is consistent with survey-based research. These findings thus both confirm and condition prior conclusions about the workplace and suggest the importance of systematically compiling the findings of workplace ethnographies to evaluate and benchmark conclusions based on ethnographic analysis.

Hodson, Randy, and Vincent J. Roscigno. 2004. "Organizational Success and Worker Dignity: Complementary or Contradictory?" American Journal of Sociology 110 (3):672-708.

Abstract: Heightened competition has resulted in an intensified search for practices that enhance organizational success - success often defined in terms of heightened worker effort. This article suggests that the interplay between organizational and job-level practices determines the extent to which organizations can be successful and workers' well-being can also be protected. These relations are analyzed with a unique data set on organizational practices, managerial behavior, and work-life experiences from 204 English-language organizational ethnographies. The analyses reveal configurations of practices associated with both positive and negative outcomes for organizations and workers. Configurations associated with organizational success include both positive organizational-level and positive job-level practices, such as employee involvement, competent management, and on-the-job training. The findings suggest that although the goals of organizational success and worker dignity are sometimes at odds, they can also be complementary.

Hodson, Randy, Vincent J. Roscigno, and Steven H. Lopez. 2006. "Chaos and the Abuse of Power." Work and Occupations 33 (4):382-416.

Abstract: Bullying is a significant workplace problem - a fact highlighted by a growing body of social science literature. Its causes, however, have received little systematic attention beyond analyses of the personality attributes of bullies. This article explores the roles of relational power and organizational chaos in the emergence of workplace bullying. The analysis of content-coded organizational ethnographies integrates quantitative and qualitative techniques and draws heavily from the ethnographies themselves. Results suggest that the interplay of relational powerlessness and organizational chaos gives rise to bullying. In contrast, where there is a disjuncture between organizational and relational factors, the extent of bullying is determined by underlying, context-specific aspects of power. These results suggest a need for organizations not only to protect the weak, but also to eliminate chaos - chaos that creates openings for the abuse of power.

Hollingsworth, Rogers, Robert Hanneman, Jerald Hage, and Charles Ragin. 1996. "The Effect of Human Capital and State Intervention on the Performance of Medical Systems." Social Forces 75 (2):459-84.

Abstract: Using theoretical perspectives of several literatures (e.g., human capital investment, state theory, mortality, and professional dominance) this study explains variation in the performance of national medical systems. Using an unique data set, it assesses the consequences of human capital investments by analyzing the impact that investments in the number of doctors and in the proportion of doctors who were specialists have on reductions in mortality (social effectiveness) and mortality reductions relative to costs (social efficiency) in Britain, France, Sweden, and the Its between 1890 and 1970. Net of other effects, investments in both doctors and specialists lead to mortality reductions, but increases in specialists are not socially efficient. The role of the state influences the impact human capital investments have on system performance. More than one configuration of the key variables can lead to the same outcomes. The study analyzes pooled time series and cross-sectional data with regression and Boolean methods.

Holvoet, Nathalie, and Sara Dewachter. 2013. "Multiple Paths to Effective National Evaluation Societies: Evidence From 37 Low- and Middle-Income Countries." American Journal of Evaluation 34 (4):519-44.

Abstract: National Evaluation Societies (NES) are situated at the intersection between Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) supply and demand. To date, little research has explored NES and their potential for strengthening national M&E. This study addresses this gap, examining perceived NES performance relevant to organizational and policy-oriented goals while identifying factors related to that performance. The study draws upon data from a survey of 40 NES in 37 low- and middle-income countries. Qualitative Comparative Analysis identifies multiple pathways to well-performing NES and focuses on the interplay between the context in which evaluation societies operate and their organizational characteristics. The findings underline the importance of political openness while also demonstrating that some NES manage to perform well even in challenging political environments.
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Hooijer, Gerda, and Georg Picot. 2015. "European Welfare States and Migrant Poverty: The Institutional Determinants of Disadvantage." Comparative Political Studies 48 (14):1879-904.

Abstract: In almost all European welfare states, immigrants face a higher risk of poverty than natives, but the gap between the two groups varies. In examining this variation, our article contributes to the nascent literature on the impact of welfare states on immigrants. We hypothesize that whether immigrants benefit from welfare generosity depends on three intervening factors: immigration policy, labor market regulation, and welfare eligibility rules. We use fuzzy-set analysis to examine the interplay of these determinants in 16 West-European states. The findings show that in most countries a high migrant disadvantage results from the combination of a large share of humanitarian and family immigrants and generous social policies. The underlying mechanism is that "unwanted" immigrants are institutionally impeded from full access to generous welfare states.
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Hörisch, Felix. 2012. "Die Bestimmungsfaktoren der Einführung der Unternehmensmitbestimmung in den OECD-Staaten - Eine fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis" Zeitschrift für Sozialreform 58 (1):33-57.

Abstract: Die Systeme der Unternehmensführung und -kontrolle in den OECD-Staaten unterscheiden sich systematisch im Hinblick auf die Beteiligung von Arbeitnehmern an Entscheidungen. Ausgehend von der Beobachtung, dass die Unternehmensmitbestimmung in Staaten, in denen sie gesetzlich vorgeschrieben ist, jeweils in den 1970er Jahren eingeführt wurde, stellt sich die Frage nach den Bestimmungsfaktoren ihrer Einführung und Stärke. Dieser Beitrag versucht, die Determinanten der Einführung der Unternehmensmitbestimmung zu identifizieren, indem Hypothesen aus der Parteiendifferenztheorie und der Machtressourcentheorie abgeleitet und mittels einer fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis überprüft werden. Es soll ermittelt werden, ob die untersuchten Faktoren eine notwendige und/oder hinreichende Bedingung für die Einführung der Unternehmensmitbestimmung waren. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass insbesondere eine starke Regierungsbeteiligung linker Parteien eine notwendige Voraussetzung für die Einführung starker Unternehmensmitbestimmung in den westlichen Industrienationen war.

Hörisch, Felix. 2013. "Fiscal Policy in Hard Times: A Fuzzy-Set QCA of Fiscal Policy Reactions to the Financial Crisis." Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft 7 (2):117-41.

Abstract: During the international financial and economic crisis of 2008-2010 all OECD member states were facing similar albeit varying challenges. However, their reactions to the crisis greatly differed. While many states passed extensive economic stimulus packages, others solely relied on a restrictive fiscal policy even in times of economic crisis. The composition of the fiscal packages also greatly varied. While some states increased public expenditure and expanded state investments, others enacted considerable tax reductions, thus focusing on an economic stimulus by forgoing public revenue. This paper aims to identify the main political determinants of the different fiscal policy reactions of the OECD member states to the economic crisis. The centerpiece of the comparative analysis consists of political economic determinants of the size and composition of the fiscal packages. A fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis serves to identify the driving forces behind the fiscal policy reactions to the crisis. The conditions are derived from partisan political theory and the "Varieties of Capitalism" approach while other factors are controlled for.

Hörisch, Felix, and Jakob Weber. 2014. "Capitalizing the Crisis? Explanatory Factors for the Design of Short-time Work across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Countries." Social Policy & Administration 48 (7):799-825.

Abstract: This article looks at the financial and economic crisis 2008-10 in 18 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development states and seeks to investigate explanatory paths for the subsidization of further education within short-time work programmes. Several hypotheses are put to the test: first, a classical partisan difference argument; second, a varieties of capitalism approach proposing a successful joint rallying of employers and employees for subsidization in coordinated market economies; and, lastly, the merged hypothesis that right-wing parties in a coordinated economic context might subsidize feeling the pressure to overcompensate an 'issue ownership' of left parties in the field of employee-friendly policies. We identify four explanatory paths: coordinated economies in the sample subsidized when they were economically closed or highly indebted. The results also support our combined hypothesis, that New Zealand - a left-governed liberal market economy - and right-governed coordinated market economies of the non-Scandinavian type subsidized.

Hotho, Jasper J. 2014. "From Typology to Taxonomy: A Configurational Analysis of National Business Systems and their Explanatory Power." Organization Studies 35 (5):671-702.

Abstract: The business systems approach holds considerable promise for improving our understanding of the relations between societal institutions and technological and economic outcomes. Nonetheless, there have been surprisingly few attempts to validate its proposed typology of business system types. In this paper, I take up this issue and conduct a large-scale empirical assessment of the national business systems typology. I use data on 30 OECD countries from 2000 and 2011 to assess the validity of the typology, and explore its value for comparative institutional analysis through a fuzzy-set analysis of innovation specialization patterns. The findings illustrate that while the national business systems typology needs to be extended, it remains relevant for describing variety in national institutional frameworks. In addition, the detail it adds may provide the nuance needed for exploring more complex relations between institutions and technological and economic outcomes.

Hsiao, Po-Hsun, Chyi Jaw, Tzung-Cheng Huan, and Arch Woodside. 2015. "Applying Complexity Theory to Solve Hospitality Contrarian Case Conundrums: Illuminating Happy-Low and Unhappy-High Performing Frontline Service Employees." International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 27 (4):608-47.

Abstract: Purpose: This study advances a configural asymmetric theory of the complex antecedents to hospitality employee happiness-at-work and managers' assessments of employees' quality of work-performance. The study transcends variable and case-level analyses to go beyond prior statistical findings of small-to-medium effect sizes of happiness-performance relationships; the study here identifies antecedent paths involving high-versus-low happy employees associating with high-versus-low managers' assessments of these employees' performances. Design/methodology/approach: The study merges data from surveys of employees (n=247) and surveys completed by their managers (n=43) and by using qualitative comparative analysis via the software program, fsQCA.com. The study analyzes data from Janfusan Fancyworld, the largest (in revenues and number of employees) tourism business group in Taiwan; Janfusan Fancyworld includes tourist hotels, amusement parks, restaurants and additional firms in related service sectors. Findings: The findings support the four tenets of configural analysis and theory construction: recognize equifinality of different solutions for the same outcome; test for asymmetric solutions; test for causal asymmetric outcomes for very high versus very low happiness and work performance; and embrace complexity. Research limitations/implications: Additional research in other firms and additional countries is necessary to confirm the usefulness of examining algorithms for predicting very high (low) happiness and very high (low) quality of work performance. The implications are substantial that configural theory and research will resolve perplexing happiness-performance conundrums. Practical implications: The study provides useful case-level algorithms involving employees' demographic characteristics and their assessments of work facet-specifics which are useful for explaining very high happiness-at-work and high quality-of-work performance (as assessed by managers) - as well as algorithms explaining very low happiness and very low quality-of-work performance. Originality/value: The study is the first to propose and test the tenets of configural theory in the context of hospitality front-line service employees' happiness-at-work and managers' assessments of these employees quality of work performances.

Hsu, Shih-Yun, Arch G. Woodside, and Roger Marshall. 2013. "Critical Tests of Multiple Theories of Cultures' Consequences: Comparing the Usefulness of Models by Hofstede, Inglehart and Baker, Schwartz, Steenkamp, as well as GDP and Distance for Explaining Overseas Tourism Behavior." Journal of Travel Research 52 (6):679-704.

Abstract: The study provides critical tests of the usefulness of four alternative theories, proposed by Hofstede, Inglehart, Schwartz, and Steenkamp, of national cultures' influences for explaining consumers' consumption of international services. The study applies critical testing of these four theories in two research contexts: visiting Australia by holiday (vacation) travelers from 5 Asian and 5 Western nations and visiting the United States by holiday (vacation) travelers from 12 nations. The study is unique and valuable in proposing and testing configurational perspectives of cultural influences rather than testing via "unpacking" the net effects of cultural dimensions separately. The findings indicate that cultural configurations do impact consumption behavior of international services beyond the influences of demographic conditions (distance and national wealth) and that Schwartz's theory is useful in particular in explaining unique aspects of consuming international services.

Huang, Chieh-Wei, and Kun-Huang Huarng. 2015. "Evaluating the Performance of Biotechnology Companies by Causal Recipes." Journal of Business Research 68 (4):851-6.

Abstract: This study empirically investigates six variables and their combinations that may affect revenues of Taiwan's biotechnology industry. Examine variables include annual government investment, annual private investment, number of national biotechnology incubator yearly, number of manufacturers that biotechnology incubators foster yearly, number of patents that listed companies own yearly, and listed companies' annual R&D expenses. Using original and incremental Taiwanese data, this study contrasts conventional multiple regression analysis (MRA) of net effects and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) of causal complexities. Results indicate that fsQCA outperforms MRA and successfully models both types of data with causal complexities.

Huang, Teh-Yi. 2004. "State Preferences and International Institutions: Boolean Analysis of China's Use of Force and South China Sea Territorial Disputes." Journal of East Asian Studies 4 (2):227-62.

Abstract: Despite China's repeated assurance of her peaceable foreign policy intentions and "never seek hegemony" claims, skeptics rebuke these as mere smoke screen that covers her ambitious forward thrust, as evidenced by, for example, China's "aggressive" moves in South China Sea and Taiwan Strait. Some China specialists, from both academic and policy-making circles, affirm that China is more prone to using force to settle territorial disputes, which implicitly assumes that it is China's inherent preference to resort to militarized confrontation in territorial conflicts. However, one wonders whether this is a true reflection of China's foreign policy preferences? Furthermore, if her preferences can be identified, are they invariant or are they subject to change under certain external and internal conditions? Trying to synthesize the rationalist and constructivist approaches, this study aims to identify China's preferences by employing a positive methodology, the Boolean algebraic approach, to determine the conditions under which China would be likely to resort to force in international disputes, and then extrapolates from the derived result to depict a probable scenario in the future of South China Sea territorial controversies. Based on the examination of China's past (1950-1996) international disputes, the current analysis finds that a conflict that involves territorial disputes would not easily escalate into militarized confrontation. Moreover, institutions matter to a large degree in conditioning China's proneness to using force to settle external disputes. These findings thus offer a more cautious but sophisticated reading of the China-threat rhetoric.

Huang, Yin-Tsuo, and Ming-Yuan Hsieh. 2015. "Exploring the most Influenced Financial Determinants of Supply Chain Management by Cross-Employing Factor Analysis Approach and Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis Method." Advances in Mechanical Engineering 7 (12):1-8.

Abstract: A majority of manufacturing companies are confronting the various financial influences on modern supply chain management. Therefore, this research employs factor analysis approach to synthetically evaluate the weight measurements of random Taiwanese interviewees and significantly further applies fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis method to testify measured results of factor analysis approach to successfully institute the most reliably evaluated model in order to induce the most influenced financial determinants for effectually minimizing the negative financial influences. Consequently, sale forecast accuracy of forecasting financial assessed factor, inventory-sales days of delivery financial assessed factor, and supplier's material delivered on-time rate of electronic-transaction financial assessed factor are the most influenced financial determinants. The most valuable contribution of this research is to academically resupply research gap as well as empirically provide handy recommendations for relative manufacturing industrialists in this contemporarily complex, higher comparative, and lower profit era.

Huarng, Kun-Huang. 2015. "Configural Theory for ICT Development." Journal of Business Research 68 (4):748-56.

Abstract: This study intends to establish configural theory for ICT development by using fuzzy set/Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) and to contrast the results with those from multivariate regression analysis (MRA). The fsQCA results support three propositions: the highly-developed countries, the highly-developed countries with low population density and the highly-developed countries with low corruption are the sufficient conditions for high ICT development. In addition, the improvement toward developed countries and increases in both population density and corruption are a sufficient condition for the improvement in ICT development. However, fsQCA finds a contrary case: the improvement toward developed countries and decreases in both population density and corruption are also a sufficient condition for the improvement in ICT development. MRA is good at model fitting. FsQCA is good at showing the causal complexities to explain the outcome and successfully predicts the withheld data sets.

Huarng, Kun-Huang, and Tiffany Hui-Kuang Yu. 2015. "Healthcare Expenditure with Causal Recipes." Journal of Business Research 68 (7):1570-3.

Abstract: Healthcare is turning a big business. A better understanding of the factors affecting healthcare expenditure (HCE) can assist expenditure control. This study uses fuzzy set/Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) to explore the sufficient conditions for the outcome, HCE. FsQCA provides causal recipes for each year to show the causal complexities leading to the outcome of that year with high consistencies. The three most recurrent causal recipes are: (1) longevity countries with many doctors and aging population; (2) longevity and rich countries with many doctors; and (3) longevity and rich countries with aging population. The analysis also shows strong predictive validities. The causal recipes of the first few years can successfully forecast the causal recipe(s) of following years.

Humprecht, Edda, and Florin Büchel. 2013. "More of the Same or Marketplace of Opinions? A Cross-National Comparison of Diversity in Online News Reporting." The International Journal of Press/Politics 18 (4):436-61.

Abstract: This paper examines diversity in online news reporting and explanatory factors that shape news production. The analysis is based on online news from six countries (the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, France, and Italy), comparing online-only news sites and legacy media. The analysis shows that most online media reported in a diverse way, comprising multiple topics and actors. Furthermore, event-driven news journalism explains the occurrence of high diversity in news reporting. Available resources and the intensiveness of online reporting (the extent as well as the editing style) also account for diversity. We draw from these findings to make a contribution to research on diversity in online news and to comparative communication studies. Qualitative comparative analysis is used to reflect on the direction and meaning of changes in journalistic practices in the current media environment.

Huntjens, Patrick, Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Benoit Rihoux, Maja Schlüter, Zsuzsanna Flachner, Susana Neto, Romana Koskova, Chris Dickens, and Isah Nabide Kiti. 2011. "Adaptive Water Management and Policy Learning in a Changing Climate: a Formal Comparative Analysis of Eight Water Management Regimes in Europe, Africa and Asia." Environmental Policy and Governance 21 (3):145-63.

Abstract: This article provides an evidence-based and policy-relevant contribution to understanding the phenomenon of policy learning and its structural constraints in the field of river basin management, in particular related to coping with current and future climatic hazards such as floods and droughts. This has been done by a formal comparative analysis of eight water management regimes, by using multi-value qualitative comparative analysis, focusing on the relationship between regime characteristics (as explanatory variables) and different levels of policy learning (as output value). This research has revealed the importance of the socio-cognitive dimension, as an essential emerging property of complex adaptive governance systems. This socio-cognitive dimension depends on a specific set of structural conditions; in particular, better integrated cooperation structures in combination with advanced information management are the key factors leading towards higher levels of policy learning. Furthermore, this research highlights a number of significant positive correlations between different regime elements, thereby identifying a stabilizing mechanism in current management regimes, and this research also highlights the necessity of fine-tuning centralized control with bottom-up approaches.
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Hussain, Muzammil M., and Philip N. Howard. 2013. "What Best Explains Successful Protest Cascades? ICTs and the Fuzzy Causes of the Arab Spring." International Studies Review 15 (1):48-66.

Abstract: It has been 15 years since the last wave of democratization. But as a region, North Africa and the Middle East were noticeably devoid of popular democracy movements - until the early months of 2011. Democratization movements had existed long before technologies like mobile phones and the Internet came to these countries. But with these technologies, people sharing an interest in democracy built extensive networks and activated collective action movements for political change. What might have made regimes more susceptible than others to these uprisings, and what might explain the relative successes of some movements over others? What role does information technology have in the modern recipe for democratization? Weighing multiple political, economic, demographic, and cultural conditions, we find that information infrastructure - especially mobile phone use - consistently appears as one of the key ingredients in parsimonious models for the conjoined combinations of causes behind regime fragility and social movement success. To understand the successes and failures of contemporary political protests, we must also assess how civil society leaders and authoritarian security forces treat communication technologies as democratically consequential.
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Ide, Tobias. 2015. "Why Do Conflicts over Scarce Renewable Resources Turn Violent? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Global Environmental Change 33 (0):61-70.

Abstract: This study addresses the question why intergroup conflicts over scarce, renewable resources in peripheral areas of the global South escalate into violence. In order to do so, twenty cases of such conflicts, seven of which turned violent, are analyzed. The method of fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis is used in order to bridge the gap between quantitative and qualitative accounts in the field and to detect patterns of conjunctural causation. In theoretical terms, structural conditions (negative othering and high power differences between the conflict parties) and triggering conditions (external resource appropriation and recent political change) of a violent escalation of renewable resource conflicts are distinguished. The empirical results as well as various robustness checks and comparisons with individual cases suggest that the simultaneous presence of negative othering, low power differences and recent political change is a sufficient condition for the violent escalation of conflicts over scarce renewable resources. I conclude that research on socio-environmental conflicts should pay more attention to conjunctural causation, local power differences and qualitatively different forms of conflict and political change.

Ignatow, Gabe. 2011. "What has Globalization Done to Developing Countries' Public Libraries?" International Sociology 26 (6):746-68.

Abstract: The goal of this article is to highlight the major trends in the establishment of public libraries in developing countries under conditions of globalization. Based on a review of research from library history and the sociology of culture, the author develops hypotheses about the conditions under which public libraries are likely to be established in relatively large numbers in developing countries. Analysis of historical trends in library establishments and crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis of UNESCO data on public libraries in six developing nations reveal that globalization is associated with decreasing or flat numbers of public libraries on a per capita basis. The only observed exceptions are Malaysia and Chile, where public libraries have been established in large numbers partly for purposes of national integration as a counter to sectarian and ethnic heterogeneity. Implications of these findings for research in the information society paradigm, and for development theory, are discussed.
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Iseke, Anja, Birgit Kocks, Martin R. Schneider, and Conrad Schulze-Bentrop. 2015. "Cross-Cutting Organizational and Demographic Divides and the Performance of Research and Development Teams: Two Wrongs Can Make a Right." R&D Management 45 (1):23-40.

Abstract: In interorganizational research and development (R&D) teams, diverse skills and insights may be combined productively, but the team members' differing organizational backgrounds may also inhibit team performance. In this paper, it is argued that interorganizational R&D teams are more likely to perform with a certain demographic composition. In particular, the problems of an organizational divide can be overcome by a second, demographic divide that cuts across organizational boundaries. With a cross-cutting demographic divide - or faultline - interorganizational R&D teams may perform; without it, they tend to perform poorly. Supportive evidence is provided in a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis on 51 projects conducted in a single R&D partnership. As this implies, interorganizational R&D teams should deliberately be composed to show a cross-cutting demographic divide.

Ishida, Atsushi, Miya Yonetani, and Kenji Kosaka. 2006. "Determinants of Linguistics Human Rights Movements: An Analysis of Multiple Causation of LHRs Movements Using a Boolean Approach." Social Forces 84 (4):1938-55.

Abstract: This paper applies a Boolean approach to examine the social background of movements for linguistic human rights. Predictive determinants to explain the occurrence of LHRs movements in this study included linguistic diversity within a country, literacy rate, population size, national income as an index of affluence, and the existence of a constitution supporting those rights. Data for 159 countries were collected and analyzed using a Boolean analysis. The result of the analysis shows that there are four combinations of economic and linguistic conditions that cause LHRs movements in a country. A further analysis with varying cutoff values reveals that the combination GD (higher gross income AND linguistic diversity) is the "strongest" condition for LHRs movements in the four combinations.

Ishiyama, John, and Anna Batta. 2012. "The Emergence of Dominant Political Party Systems in Unrecognized States." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 45 (1-2):123-30.

Abstract: In this paper, we address the question of why in some de facto states something like "dominant party" politics has emerged, whereas in others there at least appears some form of real political competition. We empirically assess some of the commonly cited factors that affect the character of politics within de facto states (the wealth of the entity, the militarization of society, the level of ethnic homogeneity, and political institutional features). Using Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), a method developed specifically to deal with the "small N problem" in empirical inquiry, we apply this framework to 13 post-secessionist unrecognized states.
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Jacobs, Sofie, Bart Cambré, Marieke Huysentruyt, and Annick Schramme. 2016. "Unraveling Belgian Fashion Designers' High Perceived Success: A Set-Theoretic Approach." Journal of Business Research 69 (4):1407-11.

Abstract: This article presents an explorative comparative case study of 19 cases in the fashion design industry regarding the achievement of high perceived organizational success. The set-theoretic analysis of these data yields two configurational pathways to high perceived success. Firstly, a balance between exploitation and exploration is necessary, especially when the fashion design firm is at an early stage in the life cycle or following dominant industry logic. Secondly, no balance is sufficient for low perceived organizational success. These findings enhance configurational understanding of the fashion industry and show that the business side of that industry needs more support.

Jackson, Gregory. 2005. "Employee Representation in the Board Compared: A Fuzzy Sets Analysis of Corporate Governance, Unionism and Political Institutions." Industrielle Beziehungen 12 (3):252-79.

Abstract: Why do employees have rights to representation within corporate boards in some countries, but not in others? Board-level codetermination is widely considered a distinctive feature of coordinated or nonliberal models of capitalism. Existing literature stresses three sets of explanations for codetermination rooted in corporate governance, union strength and political systems. The paper compares data from 22 OECD countries using the QCA method (Qualitative Comparative Analysis) and fuzzy sets approach to explore necessary and sufficient conditions for board-level codetermination. The results show two central pathways toward codetermination both rooted primarily in union coordination and consensual political systems, but with divergent implications for corporate governance systems in Scandinavia and Germany.

Jang, Dong-Ho. 2009. "Significance of Variations between Income Transfers and Social Care Services Development." Journal of Comparative Social Welfare 25 (1):37-48.

Abstract: This paper examines cross-national variations in two major welfare state policies: income transfers and social care services. In comparative social policy research it has been recently acknowledged that policy development of income transfers differs from that of social care services. However, there has been little discussion of how to explain such variations. In this paper, it is argued that explaining such a between-policy variation requires an investigation of competing causal forces within and between economy, socio-demography, politics and institutions. Using qualitative comparative analysis, this paper scrutinizes between-policy variations among 11 countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in terms of social spending level. The results suggest that the causal combination of demographic ageing and local fiscal autonomy determines the between-policy variations.
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Jano, Dorian. 2016. "Compliance with EU Legislation in the Pre-Accession Countries of South East Europe (2005-2011): A Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Journal of European Integration 38 (1):1-22.

Abstract: Compliance with European Union (EU) law and the related causal factors have been theoretically argued and empirically tested in the case of EU member-states and pre-accession countries of Central Eastern Europe. The article examines several theoretical and empirical conditions under which candidate countries of South East Europe (SEE) plausibly comply with EU legislation. Based on the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, three factors were found to relate systematically with pre-accession compliance in SEE countries, namely EU membership credibility, low political constrains and government resonance. These factors are almost always necessary conditions for EU accession and jointly can sufficiently explain compliance performance.

Järvinen, Joonas, Juha-Antti Lamberg, Johan-Peter Murmann, and Jari Ojala. 2009. "Alternative Paths to Competitive Advantage: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis of the Origins of Large Firms." Industry and Innovation 16 (6):545-74.

Abstract: Scholars have documented the importance of national-level factors for the competitive success of firms on a global scale. These studies typically identify multiple factors that are behind the emergence of large and successful firms in particular national clusters. However, there has been relatively little research identifying whether such factors are all collectively necessary to produce the outcome, or whether only a few of the factors in different combinations might be sufficient to generate the shift in competitive advantage manifested in the market power of large ?flagship? firms. In this paper, we study the evolution of one industry across six countries in which the competitive position of national firms changed considerably during our 100-year analysis period. The results of our combined historical and fuzzy-set analyses show that an unequal distribution of resources may lead to alternative causal pathways to competitive advantage of the largest firms.

Järvinen, Joonas, Juha-Antti Lamberg, and Lauri Pietinalho. 2012. "The Fall and the Fragmentation of National Clusters: Cluster Evolution in the Paper and Pulp Industry." Journal of Forest Economics 18 (3):218-41.

Abstract: A common expectation in evolutionary cluster studies is that national clusters engage in competitive interactions that lead to a continuous stream of changes in global dominance. Our fuzzy-set analysis on the evolution of the paper and pulp industry demonstrates that globalization has dramatically changed this situation. National clusters have largely faded away; the value chain dominance is now held by technology suppliers who are global hubs in majority of identifiable business activities in the focal industry. Our results imply that when industrial decline is accentuated by industrial concentration in some part of the value chain the national clusters may lose their importance.

Jordan, Elizabeth, Amy Javernick-Will, and Bernard Amadei. 2014. "A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Neighborhood Recovery Following Hurricane Katrina." International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment 5 (4):391-412.

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine why communities facing the same disaster recover differentially and determine pathways to successful disaster recovery in the research setting of New Orleans neighborhoods affected by Hurricane Katrina. While previous studies suggest that there are a variety of pathways to recovery, a broader cross-case comparison is necessary to generalize these pathways into a recovery framework. Specifically, this study seeks to determine what pre-disaster and post-disaster causal factors, alone or in combination, were important to recovery following Hurricane Katrina. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a cross-case comparative study of neighborhood-level recovery. Based on prior work, which used the Delphi method to determine hypothesized causal factors and indicators of recovery, data was collected through publically available sources, including the US Census, the Greater New Orleans Community Data Center and previously completed studies for 18 damaged neighborhoods. Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis was used due to its ability to analyze both quantitative and qualitative data for smaller case studies. Findings: The results show that there are multiple pathways combining pre-disaster community factors and post-disaster actions that led to recovery, as measured by population return. For example, economic capacity is nearly sufficient for recovery, but a combination of low social vulnerability, post-disaster community participation, a high proportion of pre-World War II housing stock and high amounts of post-disaster funds also led to recovery. Originality/value: This research uses a novel method to link pre-disaster measures of resilience and vulnerability to recovery outcomes and, through cross-case comparison, generates results that will enable researchers to develop a theory of sustainable community recovery.

Joshi, Aparna, Jooyeon Son, and Hyuntak Roh. 2015. "When Can Women Close the Gap? A Meta-Analytic Test of Sex Differences in Performance and Rewards." Academy of Management Journal 58 (5):1516-45.

Abstract: Drawing on macro and micro domains in gender research, we meta-analytically test whether occupation-, industry-, and job-level factors mitigate or exacerbate differences in performance evaluations (k = 93; n = 95,882) and rewards (k = 97; n = 378,850) between men and women. Based on studies conducted across a variety of work settings and spanning nearly 30 years, we found that the sex differences in rewards (d = .56) (including salary, bonuses, and promotions) were 14 times larger than sex differences in performance evaluations (d = .04), and that differences in performance evaluations did not explain reward differences between men and women. The percentage of men in an occupation and the complexity of jobs performed by employees enhanced the male-female gap in performance and rewards. In highly prestigious occupations, women performed equally, but were rewarded significantly lower than men. Only a higher representation of female executives at the industry level enabled women to reverse the gender gap in rewards and performance evaluations. Our configurational analysis also revealed that some occupation-, industry-, and job-level attributes of the work context jointly contributed to differences in rewards and performance evaluations.

Judge, William Q., Stav Fainshmidt, and J. Lee Brown Iii. 2014. "Which Model of Capitalism best delivers both Wealth and Equality?" Journal of International Business Studies 45 (4):363-86.

Abstract: Capitalism is the dominant economic system adopted throughout the global economy, but there are many different models of capitalism practiced depending on what the society decides [ldquo]economic effectiveness[rdquo] is. In this study, we assert that an effective economy simultaneously achieves two seemingly divergent outcomes: it (1) creates economic wealth efficiently, and (2) shares that wealth equitably. Employing insights from Whitley/'s national business systems framework and fuzzy set analysis, we examine how national institutions collectively configure with respect to the overall level of equitable wealth creation within 48 developed and developing economies. We find that three configurations are associated with relatively high levels of equitable wealth creation, and another three are associated with relatively low levels. As such, our analysis supports the notion of equifinality - that there is no one optimal model of capitalism. Furthermore, we begin to demonstrate that these models of capitalism are constantly evolving, but their evolution is generally slow even when considering the practice of capitalism before and after the 2008 global economic crisis. We discuss the implications of these findings for the study of international business, with a special emphasis on considering a more holistic context for exploring how multinational enterprises interact with their institutional environment(s).
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Judge, William Q., Helen W. Hu, Jonas Gabrielsson, Till Talaulicar, Michael A. Witt, Alessandro Zattoni, Félix López-Iturriaga, Jean Jingham Chen, Dhirendra Shukla, Majdi Quttainah, Emmanuel Adegbite, José Luis Rivas, and Bruce Kibler. 2015. "Configurations of Capacity for Change in Entrepreneurial Threshold Firms: Imprinting and Strategic Choice Perspectives." Journal of Management Studies 52 (4):506-30.

Abstract: Imprinting theory suggests that founding conditions are 'stamped' on organizations, and these imprinted routines often resist change. In contrast, strategic choice theory suggests that the firm can overcome organizational inertia and deliberately choose its future. Both theories offer dramatically different explanations behind an organization's capacity for change. IPO firms provide a unique context for exploring how imprinting forces interact with strategic choice factors to address organizational capacity for change as a firm moves from private to public firm status. Juxtaposing imprinting and strategic choice perspectives, we employ fuzzy set analysis to examine the multi-level determinants of organizational capacity for change. Our cross-national data reveal three effective configurations of organizational capacity for change within IPOs, and two ineffective configurations. Our results suggest that the antecedents of organizational capacity for change in entrepreneurial threshold firms are non-linear, interdependent, and equifinal.

Kahwati, Leila C., Megan A. Lewis, Heather Kane, Pamela A. Williams, Patrick Nerz, Kenneth R. Jones, Trang X. Lance, Stephen Vaisey, and Linda S. Kinsinger. 2011. "Best Practices in the Veterans Health Administration's MOVE! Weight Management Program." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 41 (5):457-64.

Abstract: Background: Obesity is a substantial problem in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). VHA developed and disseminated the MOVE! Weight Management Program for Veterans to its medical facilities but implementation of the program has been variable. Purpose: The objective was to explore variation in MOVE! program implementation to identify facility structure, policies, and processes associated with larger patient weight-loss outcomes. Methods: Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was used to identify facility conditions or combinations of conditions associated with larger 6-month patient weight-loss outcomes. QCA is a method that allows for systematic cross-case comparison to better understand causal complexity. Eleven sites with larger outcomes and 11 sites with smaller outcomes were identified and data were collected with site interviews, facility-completed program summary forms, and medical record abstraction in 2009 and 2010. Conditions were selected based on theory and experience implementing MOVE! and were calibrated using QCA methods. Configuration patterns were examined to identify necessary conditions (i.e., always present when outcome present, but alone do not guarantee outcome) and sufficient conditions (i.e., presence guarantees outcome) at sites with larger and smaller outcomes. A thematic analysis of site interview data supplemented QCA findings. Results: No two sites shared the same condition pattern. Necessary conditions included the use of a standard curriculum and group care-delivery format, and they were present at all sites with larger outcomes but at only six sites with smaller outcomes. At the 17 sites with both necessary conditions, four combinations of conditions were identified that accounted for all sites with larger outcomes. These included high program complexity combined with high staff involvement; group care-delivery format combined with low accountability to facility leadership; an active physician champion combined with low accountability to facility leadership; and the use of quality-improvement strategies combined with not using a waiting list. Conclusions: The use of a standard curriculum delivered with a group care-delivery format is an essential feature of successful VHA facility MOVE! Weight Management Programs, but alone does not guarantee success. Program development and policy will be used to ensure dissemination of the best practices identified in this evaluation.
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Kalleberg, Arne L., and Stephen Vaisey. 2005. "Pathways to a Good Job: Perceived Work Quality among the Machinists in North America." British Journal of Industrial Relations 43 (3):431-54.

Abstract: This paper examines the perceived quality of jobs held by a sample of members of the International Association of Machinists, a large union in North America. It is argued that useful insights can be obtained by examining the relationships between global and specific measures of job quality. We then compare two ways of linking them: the regression or correlational-causation approach and the configurational approach that regards jobs as 'bundles' of various characteristics. Our results suggest that there are various pathways by which workers may consider jobs to be 'good' but that job quality among the machinists is related especially to satisfaction with benefits, interesting work and autonomy.

Kaminsky, Jessica A., and Amy N. Javernick-Will. 2014. "The Internal Social Sustainability of Sanitation Infrastructure." Environmental Science & Technology 48 (17):10028-35.

Abstract: While the construction of sanitation infrastructure is one of humankind's greatest public health and environmental engineering achievements, its benefits are not yet enjoyed by all. In addition to the billions of people not yet reached by sanitation infrastructure, at least half of systems constructed in developing contexts are abandoned in the years following initial construction. In this research, we target the problem of postconstruction onsite sanitation infrastructure abandonment in rural Guatemala using legitimacy and status theory. Legitimacy and status are established theoretical concepts from organizational theory that reflect cultural alignment and normative support. Crisp set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA), which uses Boolean algebra to discover combinations of theoretical conditions that produce an outcome of interest, allowed us to describe the various pathways that have caused socially sustainable uptake. We find that three combinations of legitimacy and status theory explain 85% of household cases at a consistency of 0.97. The most practically useful pathway covers 50% of household cases and shows that the combination of consequential legitimacy (a moral understanding of outcomes) and comprehensibility legitimacy (a cognitive model connecting outcomes to processes) is a powerful way to achieve socially sustainable sanitation infrastructure.
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Karlas, Jan. 2012. "National Parliamentary Control of EU Affairs: Institutional Design after Enlargement." West European Politics 35 (5):1095-113.

Abstract: This article analyses the differences in institutional design in national parliamentary control over European Union affairs among EU member states. It proceeds from a preference-based perspective, drawing on the principal-agent framework, and a time-based perspective, inspired by the historical institutionalist approach. The article involves a qualitative comparative analysis of strong control and a quantitative, correlation analysis of variation in the degree of control. It argues that time-based factors provide a more persuasive overall explanation for the differences in control than preference-based factors.
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Kask, Johan, and Gabriel Linton. 2013. "Business Mating: When Start-Ups get it right." Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship 26 (5):511-36.

Abstract: The importance of forming business relationships is critical for the prosperity of start-ups; still, few studies have examined how conditions inside and around the start-up together lead to business mating ? occurrence of a new business relationship. To clarify the importance of proper fit among management style and invention features for high mating chances, this paper tackles this need by taking a configurational approach. We use qualitative comparison analysis (QCA) to analyze case studies from 16 invention-based start-ups seeking marketing partners. Findings indicate different solutions leading to high chances of forming business relationships. This study contributes with a typology to the business relationship and start-up literature, as well as discusses future directions to the emerging sub-domain of business mating research.

Katz, Aaron, Matthias vom Hau, and James Mahoney. 2005. "Explaining the Great Reversal in Spanish America." Sociological Methods & Research 33 (4):539-73.

Abstract: This article evaluates the relative strengths and weaknesses of fuzzy-set analysis and regression analysis for explaining the "great reversal" in Spanish America. From 1750 to 1900, the most marginal colonial territories often became the region's wealthiest countries, whereas the most central colonial territories often became the region's poorest countries. To explain this reversal, five competing hypotheses are tested using both regression and fuzzy-set methods. The fuzzy-set analysis reaches substantively important conclusions, finding that strong liberal factions are probabilistically necessary for economic development and that dense indigenous populations are probabilistically necessary for social underdevelopment. By contrast, the regression analysis generates findings that are not meaningful. The article concludes that fuzzy-set analysis and regression analysis operate in different "causal universes" and that greater attention should be granted to the causal universe occupied by fuzzy-set analysis.
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Kilburn, H. Whitt. 2004. "Explaining U.S. Urban Regimes." Urban Affairs Review 39 (5):633-51.

Abstract: The author studies the influence of city context on urban regimes across 14 cities in the United States by surveying published case studies and applying qualitative comparative analysis. To explain variation in a regime typology, the author tests components of market conditions (a city's fiscal resource base and mobility of local capital) and democratic conditions (local civic participation and ward-style representation). The results indicate that not one of these components is necessary or sufficient for supporting the emergence of a more progressive, as opposed to a developmental or caretaker, regime. Instead, three interactions between the components of market and democratic conditions explain the presence of progressive regimes. The author discusses the implications of the results for both studying and understanding U.S. regimes.
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Kim, Minyoung. 2013. "Many Roads lead to Rome: Implications of Geographic Scope as a Source of Isolating Mechanisms." Journal of International Business Studies 44 (9):898-921.

Abstract: Studies examining the competitive implications of geographic scope have largely focused on creating competitive advantage. In an attempt to investigate a less-illuminated role of geographic scope - that of sustaining competitive advantage - this paper investigates the sources of and relationships among the causal factors leading to creation of isolating mechanisms or barriers to imitation. This paper first distinguishes two sources of causal factors linked to the creation of isolating mechanisms, intrinsic characteristics of knowledge, and geographic scope of knowledge acquisition, and then investigates the relationships among the causal factors from the two sources. Employing the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis method, this paper examines equifinality and functional equivalence of causal factors from the two sources. Empirical analyses with United States Patent and Trademark Office patent data of the semiconductor industry corroborate the main thesis of the paper that multiple paths can lead to the creation of isolating mechanisms and, in these paths, causal factors from the two sources of isolating mechanisms can be functionally equivalent. The results also provide managerial implications that firms with different sets of resources and capabilities can implement different types of isolating strategies to sustain their competitive advantage.

Kim, Seung Hyun. 2011. "On the Historical Determinants of Third Sector Strength: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Social Science Journal 48 (4):641-50.

Abstract: This study proposes a theoretical explanation for the main causes of the third sector's strength. A Boolean comparative analysis based mainly on the theoretical frameworks of Rokkan and Esping-Andersen indicates that the combination of state-supported urban interests and Protestantism are necessary conditions. This result is very close to Max Weber's explanation of civil society which presupposes the facilitating role of the autonomous state. Thus, the empirical results are reinterpreted within the context of a Weberian explanatory framework. The implications of this endeavor within the historical context of developing countries are further explicated.

Kim, Kyo-Seong, and Yeonjung Lee. 2008. "A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Strategies for an ageing Society, with special Reference to Pension and Employment Policies." International Journal of Social Welfare 17 (3):225-35.

Abstract: The primary purpose of this study is to typify the respondent strategies of the OECD countries based on the interconnected structure of income and employment guarantees. More specifically, this article seeks to typify welfare policies into four types (welfare-to-work, welfare emphasis, labour emphasis, market emphasis) based on the leniency of the pension system and active state intervention in employment security. With the resultant four types, this article then places them as the dependent variable while incorporating per capita GDP, aged dependency ratio, pension maturity level, union density, constitutional structure index and degree of decommodification as causal variables. Through this process, this article aims to derive the decisive variable for each type through qualitative comparative analysis.
Raw Set

Kintz, Tara, John Lane, Amelia Gotwals, and Dante Cisterna. 2015. "Professional Development at the Local Level: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Critical Colleagueship." Teaching and Teacher Education 51 (0):121-36.

Abstract: This paper examines factors that contributed to critical conversations in teacher communities of inquiry (CI) as part of a statewide professional development initiative in the United States. Based on a three-year mixed method design, we use qualitative comparative analysis to investigate the influence of combinations of conditions on the depth of discussion. Results suggest that there were three conditions associated with the extent to which CI members engaged in discussions with substantive interaction and reflection: a clear purpose, coach questioning, and the connection of theory to practice. The findings contribute to the understanding of effective reform implementation in different contexts.

Kiser, Edgar, Kriss A. Drass, and William Brustein. 1993. "The Relationship between Revolt and War in Early-Modern Western-Europe." Journal of Political & Military Sociology 22 (2):305-24.

Abstract: There is currently little theoretical consensus about the relationship between revolt and war. The "conflict-cohesion" argument suggests that war decreases revolt by increasing internal solidarity, but others note that war may increase revolt since it is often contrary to the interests of subjects and it weakens the state. The "diversionary theory of war" posits that revolt may lead states to initiate offensive wars in order to create solidarity, but a balance of power argument suggests that revolts will produce defensive wars since others are more likely to attack a weakened state. Empirical studies of the relationship have been inconclusive, and most of them have been limited to a narrow time period. This paper provides the first test of these arguments in the early modern period (1400-1700), and uses a new method (qualitative comparative analysis) to explore in more detail than previous studies the relationship between particular types of wars and specific types of revolts. We find that there is no general and consistent relationship between revolt and war in this period, but there are some cases in which war weakened states enough to increase the frequency of revolts in peripheral regions.

Kiser, Edgar, Kriss A. Drass, and William Brustein. 1995. "Ruler Autonomy and War in Early Modern Western Europe." International Studies Quarterly 39 (1):109-38.

Abstract: Following Kant, many scholars have argued that rulers often benefit more from war than do their subjects, and thus that rulers with more autonomy from subjects will initiate more wars. They usually test this argument by focusing on whether democratic states are less prone to initiate wars than autocracies, and generally find little or no relationship. These are not adequate tests of the general argument, since they turn both ruler autonomy and the interests of actors into rough dichotomies (democracy vs. autocracy, rulers' interests vs. interests of all subjects), and they ignore opportunity costs. This article uses a model of state policy formation based on agency theory to provide a better measure of ruler autonomy by differentiating between institutional autonomy and resource autonomy. We also use a more nuanced specification of the interests of different groups of subjects, taking their opportunity costs into account. This model allows us to derive more precise propositions about the relationship between ruler autonomy and war initiation. An analysis of war in four Western European states (England, France, Sweden, and Spain) between 1400 and 1700, using logit regression and qualitative comparative analysis, provides some support for the central propositions of the theory.

Klüver, Heike. 2010. "Europeanization of Lobbying Activities: When National Interest Groups Spill Over to the European Level." Journal of European Integration 32 (2):175-91.

Abstract: The increasing transfer of competencies to the European level together with the growing heterogeneity of European interest federations puts national interest groups under extensive pressure. In order to guarantee the representation of their interests at the European level, they have to lobby the European institutions directly. However, not all national interest groups do so. This article therefore analyses under what conditions national associations engage at the European level. A theoretical framework is developed, combining resource mobilization theory with rational choice institutionalism. It is empirically tested in a comparative case study of lobbying strategies of French and German agricultural interest groups in the Doha Round. Drawing on a comprehensive survey conducted in 2006/07, this study combines a comparative research design with the new multi-value qualitative comparative analysis. The main conclusion is that resources as well as the domestic national institutional context determine whether national interest groups Europeanize their lobbying strategies.

Koenig-Archibugi, Mathias. 2004. "Explaining Government Preferences for Institutional Change in EU Foreign and Security Policy." International Organization 58 (1):137-74.

Abstract: Some member-states of the European Union (EU) want a supranational foreign and security policy, while other member-states oppose any significant limitation of national sovereignty in this domain. What explains this variation? Answering this question could help us to better understand not only the trajectory of European unification, but also the conditions and prospects of consensual political integration in other regional contexts and territorial scales. The main research traditions in international relations theory suggest different explanations. I examine the roles of relative power capabilities, foreign policy interests, Europeanized identities, and domestic multilevel governance in determining the preferences of the fifteen EU member governments concerning the institutional depth of their foreign and security policy cooperation. I find that power capabilities and collective identities have a significant influence, but the effect of ideas about the nature and locus of sovereignty, as reflected in the domestic constitution of each country, is particularly remarkable.
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Koll, Oliver, Arch G. Woodside, and Hans Mühlbacher. 2005. "Balanced versus Focused Responsiveness to Core Constituencies and Organizational Effectiveness." European Journal of Marketing 39 (9-10):1166-83.

Abstract: Purpose: To test how responsiveness to key organizational stakeholders (owners, customers, employees) is related to organizational effectiveness (OE). Focused versus balanced strategies of responsiveness are compared. Design/methodology/approach: Employs Boolean algebra to study performance of 69 companies in three industries over a ten-year period. Responsiveness to key stakeholders and performance are measured using publicly available data provided by these organizations (Compustat by Standard & Poor's). Findings: Provides evidence that balanced responsiveness to multiple constituencies is more likely to lead to high OE than focused responsiveness to a single one. Trade-offs in responsiveness to key stakeholders are found supporting the idea that serving multiple interests is challenging. Most results are not industry-specific - the usefulness of a balanced strategy of responsiveness may be generalized. Research limitations/implications: Responsiveness embraces organizational behaviors not covered by accounting information. Development of more comprehensive responsiveness measures may be a fruitful avenue for further research. Analyses are limited to a subset of key stakeholders and three industries. Practical implications: Provides evidence that organizations avoiding extreme unresponsiveness to any of its key stakeholders are more effective. Aiming for above-average responsiveness to any constituency only pays off if no other constituency simultaneously enjoys below-average responsiveness. Originality/value: This article develops a comprehensive methodological framework to assess strategies comparing balanced versus focused responsiveness to multiple organizational constituencies. Empirical results should be of relevance to strategy practitioners and scholars alike.

Kopraleva, Iva, and Maarten P. Vink. 2015. "EU Sanctions in Response to Intra-State Conflicts: A Comparative Approach." European Foreign Affairs Review 20 (3):315-36.

Abstract: Restrictive measures (or sanctions) form an important part of the European Union's (EU's) foreign policy toolbox. Studying the conditions under which the EU imposes sanctions is therefore imperative for understanding EU's role in the global arena. This article aims at modelling the use of EU sanctions particularly in response to intra-state conflicts in its neighbourhood. Four variables (trade linkage with the EU as whole; trade linkage with individual Member States; democracy level of the potential target state; and violence level of the intra-state conflict) are tested against data from ten intra-state conflicts from EU's neighbourhood using a comparative mixed-method methodology of fuzzy-set analysis and process-tracing.We identify the lack of strong trade linkage between individual Member States and the potential target state as a sufficient condition for the imposition of sanctions. In addition, the presence of bilateral trade links is a necessary, and if the potential target state is a democracy, sufficient condition for the non-imposition of sanctions.
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Korczynski, Marek, and Claire Evans. 2013. "Customer abuse to service workers: An analysis of its social creation within the service economy." Work, Employment & Society 27 (5):768-84.

Abstract: Evidence from a range of sources suggests that customer abuse to service workers is a significant phenomenon. This article argues that a large part of customer abuse is endogenously created within the fabric of the service economy. Thirty book-length ethnographies were coded for relevant data and a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis was undertaken. The findings show that frequent customer abuse is associated with a configuration of the promotion of customer sovereignty (at organizational, sectoral and national levels), the weak position of labour, the higher social status position of customers vis-à-vis workers and the structuring of service interactions as encounters.

Korhonen-Kurki, Kaisa, Jenniver Sehring, Maria Brockhaus, and Monica Di Gregorio. 2014. "Enabling Factors for Establishing REDD+ in a Context of Weak Governance." Climate Policy 14 (2):167-86.

Abstract: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) has emerged as an important carbon governance mechanism. However, forest governance is weak in most REDD+ countries, which undermines efforts to establish REDD+. This study analyses the factors that enable national REDD+ processes in the context of weak governance using a two-step 'qualitative comparative analysis' (QCA) of 12 REDD+ countries. Assuming that actor-related factors can be effective only if certain institutional preconditions are met, six factors were divided into two categories that were analysed separately: institutional setting (pressure from forest-resource shortage; forest legislation, policy, and governance; already initiated policy change) and the policy arena (national ownership; transformational coalitions; inclusiveness of the policy process). The factors were analysed to determine their role in efforts to establish comprehensive REDD+ policies that target transformational change. The results reveal path dependencies and institutional stickiness in all the study countries. Only countries already undertaking institutional change have been able to establish REDD+ policies in a relatively short period - but only in the presence of either high pressure from forest-resource shortages or key features of effective forest legislation, policy, and governance. Furthermore, where an enabling institutional setting is in place, the policy arena conditions of national ownership and transformational coalitions are crucial. Policy relevance: Although the aim of REDD+ is to provide performance-based payments for emissions reductions, the outcomes in terms of actual emission reductions or co-benefits are not yet observable. Most REDD+ countries are still at the design and implementation stage for policies and measures. Indicators and criteria to measure progress in this phase are required to identify which factors enable or hinder countries' performance in delivering necessary policy change to provide targeted financial incentives to support countries' efforts. This study analyses the factors that shape national REDD+ processes in the context of weak governance using a two-step QCA of 12 REDD+ countries. The results show a set of enabling conditions and characteristics of the policy process under which REDD+ policies can be established. These findings may help guide other countries seeking to formulate REDD+ policies that are likely to deliver efficient, effective, and equitable outcomes.

Krasnozhon, Leonid A. 2013. "Institutional Stickiness of Democracy in post-communist States: Can prevailing Culture explain it?" Review of Austrian Economics 26 (2):221-37.

Abstract: Structural explanation of political development offers a finite set of factors that cause democracy to consolidate or not (Acemoglu and Robinson 2006). This approach is, however, insufficient to explain political development of post-communist countries because it ignores a role of social arrangements in democratic consolidation. The field of comparative political economy is becoming more acceptable to the idea that social institutions have significant impact on political development (Boettke et al. Review of Austrian Economics 18(3-4): 281-304, 2005). Using transitional experience of post-communist countries, I demonstrate that institutional stickiness of democracy depends on a combination of causal factors, including underlying political culture (Boettke et al. American Journal of Sociology and Economics 67(2), 2008; Pejovich The Review of Austrian Economics 16(4):347-361, 2003).

Krause, Ryan, Abhijith G. Acharya, and Jeffrey G. Covin. 2014. "Here I Come to Save the Day: Proposing Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Founder-CEO Comeback." Journal of Business Venturing Insights 1-2 (0):26-30.

Abstract: Founder-CEOs have garnered considerable research attention from entrepreneurship scholars. Researchers have built and tested hypotheses about when founders will leave their firms, when they will stay, and how their presence impacts firm performance. However, no theory exists to explain when founders who have left the CEO role will return to the leadership position. A recent string of high-profile Founder-CEO comebacks suggests this is a phenomenon worth studying. Using qualitative comparative analysis on a sample of Founder-CEO successions, we identify configurations of attributes that are necessary and sufficient to produce a Founder-CEO comeback. With this paper, we contribute new theoretical insights about a rare, but important, entrepreneurial phenomenon about which little knowledge exists.

Kröger, Markus. 2011. "Promotion of contentious agency as a rewarding movement strategy: Evidence from the MST-paper industry conflicts in Brazil." Journal of Peasant Studies 38 (2):435-58.

Abstract: The recent scholarship on social movement outcomes has called for explanations about how movements influence economic outcomes. This article demonstrates in practice how a dynamic and relational approach, coupled with a Bourdieuian analysis of social, symbolic, and territorial space, can be utilized in explaining the influence of movements in contentious politics around investment projects. Based on participant observation and comparison across the Brazilian Landless Movement (MST) groups in areas of paper industry expansion, I assess the different movement strategies and their influence on pulp project outcomes. I reinterpret the ideal 'MST model' as constructed by specific strategies promoting contentious agency: organizing and politicizing, campaigning by heterodox framing, protesting, networking, and embedded autonomy vis-à-vis the state. A Qualitative Comparative Analysis comparing the expansion of 13 pulp holdings between 2004-2008 shows how these strategies influence investment pace. When both contentious and conventional strategies were used, movements managed to slow pulpwood plantation expansion.

Krohwinkel-Karlsson, Anna. 2013. "Politicized projects: Schedule modification as a tool for coordination between temporary interventions and long-term policies at an aid agency." Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration 17 (2):13-35.

Abstract: This paper aims to contribute to the general discussions within organization theory about a multi-level/contextualized approach to the study of project performance, while at the same time speaking to the emerging interest in projectified politics. The introduction of temporary economic incentives to reach specific goals is often described as a novel form of organizing (national) public policy. Yet, a related project form for stimulating change and development has since long been of frequent use in international policy settings - notably that of development aid. Project-based organizing assumes that the imposition of deadlines and management towards completion enables objectives to be reached more efficiently and effectively. Why, then, is it so common for projects to run overtime? Most previous studies concerning delays have focused on the complexities associated with the implementation of distinct project assignments. This study expands the lens to the organizational context in which projects are embedded. It hypothesizes that the priority of a project in relation to the longer-term goals and strategies of a multi-project organization is central for understanding project outcomes. The argument is tested with respect to the influence of policy frameworks and political agendas on the timeliness of aid projects funded through a public agency.

Krook, Mona Lena. 2010. "Women's Representation in Parliament: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Political Studies 58 (5):886-908.

Abstract: In recent years, statistical and case study research has increasingly reached conflicting findings in terms of the factors explaining cross-national variations in the percentage of women elected to national parliaments. To reconcile the conclusions of large-n and small-n research, this article employs qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), a medium-n technique, to study two populations of cases, Western and sub-Saharan African countries. In contrast to work predicated on assumptions of causal homogeneity and causal competition, the study reveals that multiple combinations of conditions lead to higher and lower levels of female representation. This finding corroborates the two guiding principles of QCA, causal combination and equifinality, suggesting that these methods may offer greater leverage than traditional techniques in discerning the various factors facilitating and hindering women's access to political office.
Raw Set

Krøvel, Roy. 2012. "Setting the Agenda on Environmental News in Norway." Journalism Studies 13 (2):259-76.

Abstract: This paper contributes to the understanding of the developing relationships between non-governmental organisations (NGOs), journalists and environmental issues in general, and climate change in particular. It follows 17 Norwegian NGOs over a period of 10 years, evaluating their ability to set the agenda for public debate on environmental issues in Norway, about the types of organisations that have succeeded in setting the agenda in Norwegian print media over the last 10 years. What role does the emergence of climate change as a dominating global environmental issue play in the agenda-setting capacity of Norwegian NGOs? The results do not support earlier findings that highlight an increasing media focus on sensation and identification and a lack of depth and quality. By contrast, the "winners" found in this investigation are generally those organisations that focus on producing knowledge, and not those that focus on supposedly media-friendly activism. The results also stand in contrast to existing literature on the "success" of Greenpeace. Greenpeace and similar organisations found it hard to compete for media attention as the media interest turned from pollution, roads, dams and local issues to the very complex matter of global climate change. These findings are, finally, used to reflect on how journalists employ journalistic norms.

Kühner, Stefan. 2015. "The Productive and Protective Dimensions of Welfare in Asia and the Pacific: Pathways towards Human Development and Income Equality?" Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy 31 (2):151-73.

Abstract: This article draws on recent data provided by the Asian Development Bank's Social Protection Index and uses Fuzzy Set Ideal Type Analysis to develop ideal types of welfare activity to which 29 countries in Asia and the Pacific can have varying degrees of membership. There is little evidence that the commitment to "productive" and "protective" welfare is oriented along broad geographical units or predetermined by economic affluence and the size of the informal economy. It also adds an explorative Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis to test the effect of "productive" and "protective" welfare properties on human development and income equality. Here, it finds that the absence of strong income protection is most clearly linked to low human development at the macro-level; high education investment is linked to high income inequality if governments fail to invest in employment and income protection or employment protection and training, respectively.

Kunz, Nadja C., Manuel Fischer, Karin Ingold, and Janet G. Hering. 2015. "Why Do Some Water Utilities Recycle More than Others? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis in New South Wales, Australia." Environmental Science & Technology 49 (14):8287-96.

Abstract: Although the recycling of municipal wastewater can play an important role in water supply security and ecosystem protection, the percentage of wastewater recycled is generally low and strikingly variable. Previous research has employed detailed case studies to examine the factors that contribute to recycling success but usually lacks a comparative perspective across cases. In this study, 25 water utilities in New South Wales, Australia, were compared using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). This research method applies binary logic and set theory to identify the minimal combinations of conditions that are necessary and/or sufficient for an outcome to occur within the set of cases analyzed. The influence of six factors (rainfall, population density, coastal or inland location, proximity to users; cost recovery and revenue for water supply services) was examined for two outcomes, agricultural use and "heavy" (i.e., commercial/municipal/industrial) use. Each outcome was explained by two different pathways, illustrating that different combinations of conditions are associated with the same outcome. Generally, while economic factors are crucial for heavy use, factors relating to water stress and geographical proximity matter most for agricultural reuse. These results suggest that policies to promote wastewater reuse may be most effective if they target uses that are most feasible for utilities and correspond to the local context. This work also makes a methodological contribution through illustrating the potential utility of fsQCA for understanding the complex drivers of performance in water recycling.

Lam, Wai, and Elinor Ostrom. 2010. "Analyzing the Dynamic Complexity of Development Interventions: Lessons from an Irrigation Experiment in Nepal." Policy Sciences 43 (1):1-25.

Abstract: Improving irrigation systems in Asian countries has been a high priority for the allocation of international aid. Substantial funds have been allocated to adopt the "best practices" of hiring external water engineers to construct modern systems to replace those that farmers built. These expensive investments have infrequently led to long-term improvement in the operation of irrigation systems in Asia. In this article, we examine the process and impact of an innovative irrigation assistance project that was initially undertaken in Nepal in the mid-1980s. We analyze data obtained over three time periods related to changes in system structure and performance over time. We trace the unfolding patterns of improved engineering infrastructure across time depending on the way it interacts with other factors to affect long-term irrigation performance. We examine some of the key variables that are likely to affect the diverse and complex patterns of change. We also undertake analysis of the configural impact of core variables using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). We find that the initial and later investments in system infrastructure are only one factor that helps to generate short-term improvement. Unless farmers encourage local entrepreneurs and organize themselves, create their own rules or use sanctions, and augment their rules through collective action, infrastructure investment alone is not sufficient to achieve sustainable higher performance.

Lang, Hartmut. 1993. "Dowry and Female Competition: A Boolean Reanalysis." Current Anthropology 34 (5):775-8.

1.Paragraph: According to Gaulin and Boster (I990), dowry is related to unequal distribution of resources and prescribed monogamy. Briefly, they argue that if males have unequal control over resources useful for reproductive success females will compete for males. Whereas in a "free" marriage market unequal control leads to polygyny, in a marriage market with prescribed monogamy competitors use dowry to attract resourceful males. Dickemann, criticizing Gaulin and Boster's work, points out that it is men and not women who are the actors in marriage markets (1991:945), but since the effect is the same her objection is no real threat to the theory. Another objection - that in complex societies only one class may practice dowry (1991:944-45) - is, as Gaulin and Boster have shown (1991:947), not a theoretical but a rather harmless coding problem.

Lauria, Mickey, and Jacob A. Wagner. 2006. "What Can We Learn from Empirical Studies of Planning Theory? A Comparative Case Analysis of Extant Literature." Journal of Planning Education and Research 25 (4):364-81.

Abstract: In 1995, Judith Innes recognized the increasing influence of a new type of planning theorist. Adverse to "armchair theorizing," these theorists have taken a fine-grained analysis of planning practice as the basis for reconstruction of planning theory. Despite the proliferation of this theoretical project, its impact on urban planning has yet to be analyzed in a comprehensive manner. The major impetus for the research is to assess the ways that empirical research in planning practice has informed or failed to inform planning theory. Have empirical studies of planning practice resolved existing theoretical contentions? Or have they generated only more conflicting opinions and a lack of resolution of the existing debates? This article presents a meta-analysis of empirical studies in planning theory.

Laux, Thomas. 2015. "Nationalstaatliche Prozesse oder globale Strukturen? Eine Analyse der Mechanismen zur Gleichstellung von Frauen im Recht." Berliner Journal für Soziologie 24 (4):531-58.

Abstract: Im Zuge der Globalisierung und der transnationalen Verrechtlichung stellt sich die Frage nach der Souveränität von Staaten. Der Beitrag stellt hierzu zwei Perspektiven gegenüber: Von zivilgesellschaftlichen Theorien sowie der Bewegungsforschung wird die anhaltende Bedeutung nationalstaatlicher Prozesse betont, während der Weltkulturansatz die zentrale Bedeutung globaler Strukturen hervorhebt. Die Annahmen der beiden Ansätze werden anhand der Frage nach den Mechanismen für die rechtliche Gleichstellung von Frauen in 28 OECD-Staaten untersucht. Mittels einer Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) werden zwei äquifinale Mechanismen zur Erklärung der Gleichstellung von Frauen im Recht ermittelt: Diese kann entweder mit einer starken politischen Repräsentation von Frauen oder linker Parteien im Parlament oder mit dem Zusammenwirken einer starken Frauenbewegung und der Ratifikation transnationaler Gleichstellungsabkommen durch die Staaten erklärt werden.
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Leahey, Erin, and Cindy L. Cain. 2013. "Straight from the Source: Accounting for Scientific Success." Social Studies of Science 43 (6):927-51.

Abstract: How do highly cited scientists account for their success? A number of approaches have been used to explain scientific success, but none incorporates scientists' own understandings, which are critical to a complete, process-oriented explanation. We remedy this oversight by incorporating scientists' own descriptions of the value of their work, as reflected in essays written by authors of highly cited articles ('Citation Classics'). As cultural objects, these essays reveal not only factors perceived to be associated with success but also reflect narrative conventions, and thereby elucidate the culture surrounding success. We enlist Charles Ragin's Qualitative Comparative Analysis to analyze how factors mentioned in these accounts work in conjunction. Our results show that three ingredients - relationships, usefulness to others, and overcoming challenges - are found in a large majority of scientific success stories.

Ledermann, Simone. 2012. "Exploring the Necessary Conditions for Evaluation Use in Program Change." American Journal of Evaluation 33 (2):159-78.

Abstract: Research has identified a wide range of factors that affect evaluation use but continues to be inconclusive as to their relative importance. This article addresses the complex phenomenon of evaluation use in three ways: first, it draws on recent conceptual developments to delimitate the examined form of use; second, it aims at identifying conditions that are necessary but not necessarily sufficient for evaluation use; third, it combines mechanisms of evaluation use, context conditions, and actor perceptions. The study reported here examines the use of 11 program and project evaluations by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). The article makes use of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), a method that is well suited to the study of context-bound necessity. It is concluded that the analysis of conditions that are necessary to trigger mechanisms of evaluation use in certain contexts is challenging, but promising to face the complexity of the phenomenon.
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Lee, Sophia Seung-Yoon. 2013. "High Non-Standard Employment Rates in the Republic of Korea and Japan: Analyzing Policy Configurations with Fuzzy-Set/QCA." Policy and Society 32 (4):333-44.

Abstract: The paper investigates policy conditions for high rates of non-standard employment in Korea and Japan exploiting fs/QCA (fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis). We first review the previous literature on labor market risks and discuss the advantages of taking a configurational approach in investigating policies related to increase of non-standard workers. Secondly, non-standard employment in Korea and Japan are examined more closely in comparison with other OECD countries. In case of Korea, a low level of statutory minimum wage in combination with strict employment protection legislation for permanent workers is suggested as the sufficient condition for high rate of non-standard employment rate. In case of Japan, a low level of statutory minimum wage in combination with weak employment protection legislations for temporary workers is suggested to lead to a high level of non-standard employment rate. We empirically test which policy configurations cause high rate of non-standard employment and discuss (i) the importance of examining multiple policies together and (ii) that there can be different pathways to the same outcome.

Leischnig, Alexander, Anja Geigenmueller, and Stefanie Lohmann. 2014. "On the Role of Alliance Management Capability, Organizational Compatibility, and Interaction Quality in Interorganizational Technology Transfer." Journal of Business Research 67 (6):1049-57.

Abstract: Interorganizational technology transfer (ITT) is a key component of firms' innovation processes. ITT involves purposeful, goal-oriented interactions between two or more organizations to exchange technological knowledge and/or artifacts and rights. Using the relational view, this study develops and empirically tests a research framework that incorporates key factors of technology transfer success to answer three questions: (1) How do various managerial routines and procedures that as a whole reflect a firm's alliance management capability influence interaction quality in ITT? (2) How does interaction quality in turn influence technology transfer success? (3) Which configurations of organizational and interactional factors contribute to technology transfer success? By examining the causal chain from alliance management capability through interorganizational interaction quality to technology transfer success, this study explains linkages between important antecedents and consequences of interaction quality and thus contributes to a better understanding of the interorganizational exchange processes that determine technology transfer success.

Leischnig, Alexander, Björn S. Ivens, and Stephan C. Henneberg. 2015. "When Stress Frustrates and When It Does Not: Configural Models of Frustrated versus Mellow Salespeople." Psychology & Marketing 32 (11):1098-114.

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to elucidate the stress-strain relationship by examining compound causes of frustration in the workplace. Drawing on configuration theory, this article describes stress patterns, that is, configurations of role stressors and social stressors, and underlying frustration and its negation, that is, mellowness. In addition, this article describes potential sources of such frustration-stimulating stress patterns by examining constellations of employee and task characteristics. Based on a sample of 118 salespeople, the authors analyze the data using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis - an analytic method pertinent to describing configurational patterns of causal factors. The findings from this study indicate the coexistence of alternative patterns of stressors for frustration. In addition, the findings show that configurational patterns for frustrated salespeople are quite different from those characterizing mellow salespeople. In summary, knowledge of these constellations of stressors helps sales managers detect conditions that frustrate, and develop strategies to diminish these conditions in order to improve sales force performance.

Leischnig, Alexander, and Kati Kasper-Brauer. 2015. "Employee Adaptive Behavior in Service Enactments." Journal of Business Research 68 (2):273-80.

Abstract: This study deepens understanding of the causal patterns of factors stimulating employees to perform adaptive behaviors in service encounter situations. Drawing on motivation literature and configuration theory, this study develops and tests research propositions based on a sample of 228 employees from the insurance industry. Findings from fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis indicate three configurations of employee personal characteristics and work perceptions explain employee adaptive behavior. This article contributes to the literature by providing new insights into the causal pattern of factors stimulating customization approaches in service situations. Based on these findings, this article discusses implications for service management.

Leykum, Luci, Holly Lanham, Jacqueline Pugh, Michael Parchman, Ruth Anderson, Benjamin Crabtree, Paul Nutting, William Miller, Kurt Stange, and Reuben McDaniel. 2014. "Manifestations and Implications of Uncertainty for Improving Healthcare Systems: An Analysis of Observational and Interventional Studies Grounded in Complexity Science." Implementation Science 9 (1):165.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The application of complexity science to understanding healthcare system improvement highlights the need to consider interdependencies within the system. One important aspect of the interdependencies in healthcare delivery systems is how individuals relate to each other. However, results from our observational and interventional studies focusing on relationships to understand and improve outcomes in a variety of healthcare settings have been inconsistent. We sought to better understand and explain these inconsistencies by analyzing our findings across studies and building new theory. METHODS: We analyzed eight observational and interventional studies in which our author team was involved as the basis of our analysis, using a set theoretical qualitative comparative analytic approach. Over 16 investigative meetings spanning 11months, we iteratively analyzed our studies, identifying patterns of characteristics that could explain our set of results. Our initial focus on differences in setting did not explain our mixed results. We then turned to differences in patient care activities and tasks being studied and the attributes of the disease being treated. Finally, we examined the interdependence between task and disease. RESULTS: We identified system-level uncertainty as a defining characteristic of complex systems through which we interpreted our results. We identified several characteristics of healthcare tasks and diseases that impact the ways uncertainty is manifest across diverse care delivery activities. These include disease-related uncertainty (pace of evolution of disease and patient control over outcomes) and task-related uncertainty (standardized versus customized, routine versus non-routine, and interdependencies required for task completion). CONCLUSIONS: Uncertainty is an important aspect of clinical systems that must be considered in designing approaches to improve healthcare system function. The uncertainty inherent in tasks and diseases, and how they come together in specific clinical settings, will influence the type of improvement strategies that are most likely to be successful. Process-based efforts appear best-suited for low-uncertainty contexts, while relationship-based approaches may be most effective for high-uncertainty situations.

Liao, Hsiao-Chuan. 2014. "State Dissatisfaction: Predicting the Occurrence of Interstate War." Asian Politics & Policy 6 (2):217-36.

Abstract: Dissatisfaction is the trigger for states to initiate war according to power transition theory. The more a state is dissatisfied, the more likely it will initiate war. Traditionally, scholars use military buildups and alliance portfolios to measure states' dissatisfaction. Those measures do not express state dissatisfaction directly but provide, at best, circumstantial evidence. This paper introduces a direct measure of state dissatisfaction by counting requests and threats made by one state to another state. Four types of cases are selected from combinations of state dissatisfaction and initiation of war. The analyses are based on a selected-focus-dyad unit and quantified data sets. Using Boolean algebra, this article demonstrates that military parity and dissatisfaction expressed by territorial threats are more likely to trigger war. The results also show what elements of power parity and state dissatisfaction contribute to noninitiation of war. Last, the case studies highlight the nuances in the decision to initiate war among various states.

Lieberson, Stanley, and Eleanor O. Bell. 1992. "Children's First Names: An Empirical Study of Social Taste." American Journal of Sociology 98 (3):511-54.

Abstract: Data on births in New York State between 1973 and 1985 are used to analy gender differences in naming patterns. In a relatively rigorous way, the authors infer how seemingly idiosyncratic expressions of tastes in names are in general affected by underlying cultural themes. For example, the results suggest that long-standing stereotyped role assignments still have a subtle but major effect on the naming process. Two major parental characteristics-education and race-modify these general patterns. In turn, taste differences in subpopulations reveal their general esthetics dispositions. The authors present these results as the first large-scale systematic comparison of educational differences in naming patterns in the United States.

Lilliefeldt, Emelie. 2012. "Party and Gender in Western Europe Revisited: A Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Gender-Balanced Parliamentary Parties." Party Politics 18 (2):193-214.

Abstract: Scholars of women's parliamentary presence have suggested that the proportion of women parliamentarians rests on the interaction between intra-party and party external conditions, and that these can be discussed in terms of necessity and sufficiency. Still, the field lacks systematic cross-case assessments of such relationships. This research takes an explorative approach to necessity, sufficiency and interaction in the field of gender and party. Using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to study 57 individual West European parties, it demonstrates that party behaviour is a function of intra-party and party-external conditions. Furthermore, it shows that when the external factors are not present, parties are themselves able to achieve gender-balanced parliamentary delegations. The article reveals that there are several paths to gender balance, and that the absence of conditions sufficient for balance does not explain why parties do not become gender balanced.
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Lin, Chiu Hui, Chih-Wen Wu, and Yi-Han Cheng. 2015. "The Empirical Study of Consumers' Loyalty for Display Technology." Journal of Business Research 68 (11):2260-5.

Abstract: The introduction of new services to satisfy customers' needs is a critical issue for managers. Management of display technologies advocates as a new and promising service innovation research field. The research conducts a comprehensive study of the impacts of display technology on consumer loyalty. This study examines customer loyalty from some research constructs, namely service quality, service leadership, easy to use and satisfaction. The authors use online survey data from 545 consumers. The conceptual framework investigates the relevant relationships among the constructs by using structural equation modeling (SEM) and fuzzy set qualitative analysis (FsQCA) approach. Findings from the research sample support the argument that service quality, service leadership, easy to use and satisfaction are the key determinants of customer loyalty. The display technology for service provider can enhance the customer loyalty in the fashion industry.

Linder, Wolf. 2010. "On the Merits of Decentralization in Young Democracies." Publius: The Journal of Federalism 40 (1):1-30.

Abstract: Three features of decentralization proposed by institutional development theory are analyzed for Mozambique's Autarquias, politically autonomous municipalities since 1997. The three issues analyzed in this article are: Consolidation of the fiscal state, democracy, and the development of service quality in the local administration. Under decentralization, each of the three features is shown empirically to allow progress toward political development. Using QCA-analysis, the politics contributing to institutional consolidation are identified. While the different socio-economic contexts of the Autarquias and power sharing play an important role, the effects of direct participation are more ambiguous. Decentralization can contribute to a "state closer to the people" and may correct the deficiencies of "top down" politics characterizing many African States. However, decentralization cannot overcome deep socio-political divides such as those existing in Mozambique within such a short time. Finally, positive development towards consolidation of democracy, of the local state and its service quality depend on different patterns of politics, more complex than general theories propose.
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Longest, Kyle C., and Peggy A. Thoits. 2012. "Gender, the Stress Process, and Health: A Configurational Approach." Society and Mental Health 2 (3):187-206.

Abstract: Numerous studies have shown that men and women react to experiences of stressors and a lack of protective resources in different ways, with women exhibiting high levels of internalizing health outcomes (e.g., psychological distress and ill health) and men showing higher levels of externalizing outcomes (e.g., substance abuse and aggression). Although this research is valuable, the emphasis on differing outcomes by gender has prematurely shifted the focus away from the processes leading to similar health outcomes across genders. The current study uses a novel analytic approach, Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), to examine and compare the key pathways that lead to poor physical and mental health among men and women. Analysis of data from a panel study of Indianapolis residents (N = 532) indicates that a combination of numerous stressors with low resources consistently leads to poor mental and physical health. The specific configurations of factors that are sufficient to produce these outcomes, however, differ across men and women, with men requiring a full onslaught of stressors and a dearth of resources to experience high psychological distress or ill health and women experiencing such poor outcomes as the result of several, relatively limited combinations of these factors.

López-Duarte, Cristina, Marta M. Vidal-Suárez, and Belén González-Díaz. 2015. "Impact of Cultural Positions on FDI's Entry Mode." Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal 22 (3):509-26.

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of cultural positions on the choice of entry mode in foreign direct investment (FDI) - joint ventures vs wholly owned subsidiaries. The paper focusses on the impact of cultural positions along four cultural dimensions, as well as on the interactions between these positions and FDI's contextual variables (i.e. linguistic differences). Design/methodology/approach: A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis is performed on a data set of Spanish investments located in the European Union. Findings: Existence of interaction effects among cultural positions along different dimensions, as well as between cultural positions and FDI's contextual variables. Research limitations/implications: Main limitations relate to the data set, as only FDIS carried out by big corporations and coming from a single country are considered. Practical implications: Managers making decisions on the choice of entry mode must take into account the position relative to each individual cultural dimension, as well as its interaction with other cultural dimensions and FDI's contextual variables, rather than just considering cultural distances (CDs) between countries. Originality/value: First, focus on cultural positions (rather than CDs). It allows taking into account both the cultural characteristics of each party and their relative values along individual cultural dimensions. Second, development of a qualitative analysis that considers the contextual features of the investment.

Maat, Eelco van der. 2011. "Sleeping Hegemons: Third-Party Intervention following Territorial Integrity Transgressions." Journal of Peace Research 48 (2):201-15.

Abstract: It is not clear why some territorial transgressions lead to intervention by the international community and others do not. As most territorial transgressions lead to a reaction from the international community but a few, however, do not, this study examines the main determinants for non-intervention by capable members of the international community, following violation of the territorial integrity norm by a deviant state. This article focuses on which characteristics of the norm-transgressing state, the conflict, and the state capable of enforcing the norm affect the occurrence of non-intervention. This comparative study examines six major alleged transgressions of the territorial integrity norm - the occupation of Tibet, the Suez crisis, the 1967 six-day war, the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, the Moroccan occupation of the Western Sahara, and the 1989 Gulf crisis - using a multi-methodological approach based on qualitative methods, most notably fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Analysis reveals that the absence of high security costs to the hegemon in combination with (a) strategically important security relations between the transgressor and the hegemon or (b) absence of military and economic vulnerability are generally necessary and sufficient for non-intervention.
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Maatsch, Aleksandra. 2014. "Are we all Austerians now? An Analysis of National Parliamentary Parties' Positioning on Anti-Crisis Measures in the Eurozone." Journal of European Public Policy 21 (1):96-115.

Abstract: ABSTRACT Which factors account for positioning of national parliamentary parties on anti-crisis measures implemented in the bailout states of the eurozone? The literature suggests that parties representing the economic 'left' are more likely to advocate Keynesian measures, whereas parties representing the economic 'right' tend to support the neoliberal ones. However, the current political discourse suggests that the choice of anti-crisis policies rather reflects the conflict of interests between euro states that received a bailout (debtors) and those who only provided financial guarantees (creditors). The empirical findings, based on (1) discourse analysis of national parliamentary debates and (2) the qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) model (crisp set), demonstrate that - next to the economic stance of a party - receipt of a bailout also accounts for parliamentary parties' positioning on anti-crisis measures. In particular, parliamentary parties in debtor states are likely to opt for Keynesian anti-crisis measures despite their right-wing economic stance or membership in the government.

Maggetti, Martino. 2007. "De Facto Independence after Delegation: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis." Regulation & Governance 1 (4):271-94.

Abstract: The phenomenon of delegating public authority from elected politicians (or ministries headed by elected politicians) to formally independent regulatory agencies (RAs) is becoming increasingly widespread. This paper examines the relation between formal independence, as prescribed in the constitutions of agencies, and de facto independence. Toward this end, it conceptualizes and assesses de facto independence of RAs, and discusses organizational, institutional, and political explanations for divergence from formal independence. The complex relations between de facto and formal independence are examined with a cross-national, cross-sectoral comparison of 16 Western European RAs using fuzzy-set analysis. The results show that formal independence is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for explaining variations in the de facto independence of agencies. Other factors, such as the lifecycle of agencies, veto players, and European networks of agencies, have a decisive impact.

Maggetti, Martino. 2009. "The Role of Independent Regulatory Agencies in Policy-Making: A Comparative Analysis." Journal of European Public Policy 16 (3):450-70.

Abstract: This article examines the role of formally independent regulatory agencies (IRAs) in policy-making, focusing on six cases concerning the revision of crucial laws related to the competencies of the investigated IRA. These cases were selected from three small European countries (the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland) and two policy areas (finance and competition). After collecting documental and survey information on the participation and weight of each actor, the Actor-Process-Event Scheme was used to obtain a synthetic measure of agencies? centrality in the course of each policy process. My hypotheses on the centrality of agencies are then tested with a two-step Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Results suggest that de facto independence from the political decision-makers is a necessary condition for the maximal centrality of agencies in policy-making, whilst non-professionalization of the legislature and low independence from the regulatees are jointly sufficient for explaining this outcome.

Maggetti, Martino. 2014. "Promoting Corporate Responsibility in Private Banking: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Joining the Wolfsberg Initiative Against Money Laundering." Business & Society 53 (6):787-819.

Abstract: In recent years, the fight against money laundering has emerged as a key issue of financial regulation. The Wolfsberg Group is an important multistakeholder agreement establishing corporate responsibility (CR) principles against money laundering in a domain where international coordination remains otherwise difficult. The fact that 10 out of the 25 top private banking institutions joined this initiative opens up an interesting puzzle concerning the conditions for the participation of key industry players in the Wolfsberg Group. The article presents a fuzzy-set analysis of seven hypotheses based on firm-level organizational factors, the macro-institutional context, and the regulatory framework. Results from the analysis of these 25 financial institutions show that public ownership of the bank and the existence of a code of conduct are necessary conditions for participation in the Wolfsberg Group, whereas factors related to the type of financial institution, combined with the existence of a black list, are sufficient for explaining participation.
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Magnier-Watanabe, Rémy, and Dai Senoo. 2008. "Organizational Characteristics as Prescriptive Factors of Knowledge Management Initiatives." Journal of Knowledge Management 12 (1):21-36.

Abstract: Purpose: The use of knowledge in organizations is largely a discretionary behavior that can be encouraged but not demanded. As such, the firm can only attempt to provide the right conditions for employees to endorse the role of knowledge workers. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the organization of the firm affects knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach: This research proposes a new framework showing the prescriptive role of organizational characteristics onto knowledge management (KM) initiatives. Based on this framework, data were generated from nine semi-structured interviews conducted in the American, British and Japanese offices of a major Japanese pharmaceutical company, using a Boolean approach and qualitative content analysis. Findings: Organizational characteristics, specifically - structure, membership, relationship, and strategy affect KM, namely - knowledge acquisition, storage, diffusion, and application respectively. Research limitations/implications: Even though the departments of each local office under study were matched in terms of activity, the size of their own domestic market made comparisons sometimes challenging. Practical implications: This research suggests that practitioners can increase the yield of KM when integrated upstream into the elementary business processes rather than when left voluntary. Originality/value: This paper uncovers a possible link between the firm's organizational characteristics and KM, and the new practical framework can be useful to both scholars and practitioners.

Mahoney, James. 2003. "Long-Run Development and the Legacy of Colonialism in Spanish America." American Journal of Sociology 109 (1):50-106.

Abstract: For more than a century, the countries of Spanish America have maintained their level of development relative to one another. This article argues that this enduring regional hierarchy is a path-dependent legacy of Spanish colonialism. Those territories that constituted the centers of the Spanish colonial empire tended to become the region's least developed countries; by contrast, those territories that were peripheral to the Spanish empire tended to become the most developed countries. Using methods for assessing both correlational causation and necessary/sufficient causation, the article explores competing hypotheses to explain this inverse relationship. It finds that the density of the indigenous population and the strength of liberal elites during the period from 1700 to 1850 were critical factors linking colonial and postcolonial development.
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Malatesta, Deanna, and Julia L. Carboni. 2015. "The Public-Private Distinction: Insights for Public Administration from the State Action Doctrine." Public Administration Review 75 (1):63-74.

Abstract: Public administration scholars continue to grapple with how and why public organizations differ from private organizations. The judiciary deals with similar questions in ruling on constitutional claims that apply exclusively to state actors. The authors consider similarities and differences between scholarly and judicial approaches, adding to the body of research attempting to capture the complexities of the public-private distinction. The application in this article includes the coding of seminal court decisions and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to find combinations of causal conditions that lead to state action rulings. The specifics revealed through QCA provide valuable lessons for extending public norms and preserving constitutional protections when outsourcing public services.

Mannewitz, Tom. 2010. "Alte Bekannte im neuen System: Gründe für die Aufstiege und Niedergänge der mittelosteuropäischen Postkommunisten seit 1990." Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft 4 (2):261-93.

Abstract: Diese Untersuchung von Erfolgen und Misserfolgen der postkommunistischen Parteien in Mittelosteuropa testet mittels einer Weiterentwicklung des makroqualitativen Ansatzes von Charles C. Ragin die etablierten Forschungshypothesen in ihrer Kombination. Dabei stellt sie die zeitlich wie geografisch bisher umfangreichste Arbeit dar. Es wurden die für Erfolg und Misserfolg relevanten Konfigurationen naher und ferner Bedingungen seit dem Zusammenbruch des Kommunismus ermittelt: 1) die staatssozialistische Vergangenheit, 2) gesellschaftlich verwurzelte sozialistische Verhaltensmuster, 3) die Konkurrenzstruktur der Parteien, 4) ihre Positionierung auf der ökonomisch-distributiven und der national-kosmopolitischen Konfliktlinie, 5) die präelektorale Bündnispolitik der PKPen, 6) ihre gesellschaftliche Verwurzelung über Gewerkschaften sowie 7) die Art des zu führenden Wahlkampfes.
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Mantilla, Luis Felipe. 2010. "Mobilizing Religion for Democracy: Explaining Catholic Church Support for Democratization in South America." Politics and Religion 3 (3):553-79.

Abstract: This article explores the conditions under which religious organizations push for democratization by addressing variation in support for democracy among Catholic Church authorities in South America. It argues that this can be best explained by leveraging key concepts used in the study of social movements: cultural frames, mobilizing resources, and political opportunity structures. This approach yields counter-intuitive insights about the role played by the Second Vatican Council, the size of national churches, and the crucial role of political parties. The empirical argument is formulated in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions, and tested using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

Marín, Andrés, Örjan Bodin, Stefan Gelcich, and Beatrice Crona. 2015. "Social Capital in Post-Disaster Recovery Trajectories: Insights from a Longitudinal Study of Tsunami-Impacted Small-Scale Fisher Organizations in Chile." Global Environmental Change 35:450-62.

Abstract: Increased likelihood and severity of coastal disasters in the 21st century represent major threats for coastal communities' resource management capacity and livelihoods. Disaster research has frequently looked for singular factors explaining why some communities are more resilient and better equipped to cope with and recover from disasters. This study draws on Chile's 2010 tsunami to evaluate the effects of both internal (social capital) and external (level of damage and isolation) factors on fishing communities' recovery trajectories. Using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) we assess how the concurrency of conditions explains fisher organization responses. By operationalizing social capital as the social networks developed for co-management, we also evaluate whether social capital developed for natural resource management can help communities overcome post-disaster challenges. Results show that the level of linking social capital is critical in determining post-disaster trajectories. While maintained or increasing levels of social capital are indispensable for positive trajectories to occur, a common denominator for less desirable post-disaster recovery trajectories is a low or reduced level of social capital. However, external factors, such as the amount of damage and geographical isolation, are also important in determining recovery trajectories, indicating the limits of relying solely on social relations for recovery. These concurrent factors can amplify or reduce the importance of supportive relationships. Understanding the implications of complex interplay between social capital and external factors for community recovery in response to coastal disasters can inform the design of more effective and efficient responses and policies in Chile and more broadly. Furthermore, social capital developed for the purpose of co-management of natural resources can actually promote desirable post-disaster trajectories.

Martí I Puig, Salvador. 2010. "Les Raisons de l'Existence et du Succès des Partis Ethniques en Amérique Latine. Les Cas de la Bolivie, de l'Équateur, du Guatemala, du Mexique, du Nicaragua et du Pérou." Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée 17 (2):143-65.

Abstract: Cet article vise à savoir s'il existe un lien causal entre la présence et la pertinence des partis ethniques (PE) dans six pays d'Amérique Latine (Bolivie, Équateur, Guatemala, Mexique, Nicaragua et Pérou) et les "conditions favorables" telles que définies par les différentes branches de la littérature sur l'action collective, notamment les structures d'opportunités politiques, les répertoires de l'action collective, les cadres cognitifs et les structures connectives des organisations. Dans ce but, nous avons effectué une analyse qualitative multicausale basée sur des cas et des variables (avec N=6) utilisant la logique boléenne de simplification des structures de données complexes. L'objectif est d'identifier les causes différentes produisant un phénomène, c'est-à-dire, ici, les raisons de la présence et du succès des partis ethniques en Bolivie, en Équateur et au Nicaragua, contrairement au Guatemala, au Mexique ou au Pérou.

Marr, Matthew D. 2012. "Pathways out of Homelessness in Los Angeles and Tokyo: Multilevel Contexts of Limited Mobility amid Advanced Urban Marginality." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 36 (5):980-1006.

Abstract: The widespread entrenchment of gaping urban inequality has aroused concern about how economic, demographic and (neoliberal) ideological globalization interacts with local conditions to shape its magnitude, manifestations and experiences. This article explores how the process of exiting homelessness is affected by an interaction of social contexts operating at multiple levels, from the global to the individual. I advance and assess a multilevel framework of exiting homelessness by combining comparison of secondary data at multiple social levels and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis of longitudinal interview data from persons using transitional housing programs in Los Angeles and Tokyo. In the two cities, individual vulnerabilities and acculturation to homelessness are superseded via different pathways out of homelessness. Pathways in Los Angeles rely on social and organizational ties amid a paucity of economic opportunities, whereas pathways in Tokyo use economic resources amid limited ties. Contrary to approaches that emphasize singular contexts driving marginality, I demonstrate differing local impacts of globalization and the important and interacting roles of the state, organizational contexts of social service delivery and cultural dimensions of social capital. This points towards the utility of a new poverty management framework for understanding interventions addressing homelessness as fragmented, contradictory and contingent upon multiple contexts.

Martin, Chris, and Mike Metcalfe. 2011. "Implementation Processes: A Boolean Analysis." Journal of the Operational Research Society 62 (1):21-8.

Abstract: Implementing new operating procedures into organisations is problematic. It requires consideration of the socialisation processes needed to encourage implementers to creatively adopt and adapt the new procedure. The four main explanations of why organisational change occurs are teleology (group emerged action), evolution, dialectic and life cycles (growth stages). These have been mapped onto the corresponding organisational socialisation processes of job rotation, benchmarking with continuous improvement, competition and the use of champions. It has been claimed that successful implementation requires a mix of all four of these processes. This paper tests that claim by comparing the implementation of Total Quality Management into 32 independent and geographically dispersed bulk grain handling sites located around South Australia. Using Boolean Analysis it was found that successful implementation was achieved using either (a) self managed problem-solving teams and a review teams or, (b) champions with job rotation and site visits. Both of these mixes of socialisation processes worked; doing both was not necessary. The implications of this finding are discussed.

Martin, Drew, and Arch G. Woodside. 2011. "Tourists' Dual-Processing Accounts of Reasoning, Judgment, and Actions." International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 5 (2):195-212.

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe theory building and testing of dual processing of tourist reasoning, judgment, and actions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper applies micro-tipping point theory and qualitative comparative analysis, using case study data. Findings: Maps of the reasoning, judgments, and actions of five parties of tourist buying major services support dual-processing theory of deciding on destination choices. Research limitations/implications: This report does not include the attempt to generalize the findings to large survey samples of informants. Practical implications: Executives need to go beyond recognizing that what tourists report consciously may differ substantially from what they think unconsciously and to plan on collecting data on both dual processing modes of thinking. Originality/value: This paper breaks new ground in applying dual-processing theory in tourist behavior of buying major tourist services.

Martín-de Castro, Gregorio, Miriam Delgado-Verde, Javier Amores-Salvadó, and José Emilio Navas-López. 2013. "Linking Human, Technological, and Relational Assets to Technological Innovation: Exploring a New Approach." Knowledge Management Research & Practice 11 (2):123-32.

Abstract: In a knowledge-based economy, firms' technological innovations represent one of the best ways in order to survive and to achieve firm success. Nonaka and Takeuchi stated that technological innovation is close to firms' intellectual or knowledge asset management, and additional efforts are needed to understand these complex causal relationships. If we can assume that technological innovation causation rarely has a single cause, and that these causes rarely operate in isolation from each other, empirical research needs a new configurational perspective, where the integrity of firms' technological innovations as complex configurations of causal factors are preserved. This way, using a configurational approach, and primary data of 251 technology-based firms based in Spain, this paper explores firms' human, technological, and relational assets configurations and product innovations.

Marx, Axel. 2008. "Limits to non-State Market Regulation: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of the International Sport Footwear Industry and the Fair Labor Association." Regulation & Governance 2 (2):253-73.

Abstract: Non-state market regulation has become a central focus and continues to receive scholarly attention. The present paper provides an assessment of the conditions under which multinational firms join a multi-stakeholder certification initiative. The cases of the Fair labor Association and 17 international sport footwear companies have been selected for this purpose. A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of the 17 cases is performed. The paper argues that the combination of sustained NGO pressure and public ownership of a firm is a necessary precondition for firms joining a multi-stakeholder certification initiative. The theoretical and policy implications of this result are discussed.

Mas-Tur, Alicia, Pablo Pinazo, Ana María Tur-Porcar, and Manuel Sánchez-Masferrer. 2015. "What to Avoid to Succeed as an Entrepreneur." Journal of Business Research 68 (11):2279-84.

Abstract: Entrepreneurship is a driver of economic growth and development. This study highlights the importance of entrepreneurship in emerging countries and examines entrepreneurs' characteristics in these countries. In particular, the study explains what entrepreneurs should avoid to succeed in Latin America. An empirical study analyzes factors that relate to businesses and entrepreneurs in El Salvador, one of the Latin American countries with the lowest rates of business success. In the study, business factors consist of the use of formal and informal advisory services and the degree of innovation. Variables that relate to the entrepreneur are educational attainment and the demographic variables sex and age. Results from analysis of 2012 GEM data using csQCA methodology show that degree of innovation, professional advisory services, and educational attainment play key roles in business success.

Mas-Verdú, Francisco, Domingo Ribeiro-Soriano, and Norat Roig-Tierno. 2015. "Firm Survival: The Role of Incubators and Business Characteristics." Journal of Business Research 68 (4):793-6.

Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of business incubators on firm survival. Using a configurational comparative method, namely fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the article also examines whether degree of business innovation, size, sector, and export activity affects firm survival. Results show that, when combined with other variables (i.e. sector, technology), business size is a sufficient condition for firm survival. Likewise, incubators alone cannot affect survival. A combination between incubators and other factors is necessary to ensure firm survival.

McAdam, Doug, Hilary S. Boudet, Jennifer Davis, Ryan J. Orr, W. Richard Scott, and Raymond E. Levitt. 2010. ""Site Fights": Explaining Opposition to Pipeline Projects in the Developing World." Sociological Forum 25 (3):401-27.

Abstract: Fifty years ago, the main challenges to large infrastructure projects were technical or scientific. Today, the greatest hurdles faced by such projects are almost always social and/or political. Whether constructing large dams in the developing world or siting liquefied natural gas terminals in the United States, the onset of these projects often triggers intense popular opposition. But not always, and therein lays the animating aim of this project. We undertake a systematic comparative case analysis of mobilization efforts against 11 oil and gas pipeline projects spanning 16 countries in the developing world. Using theories from the social movement and facility siting literatures and the technique of fuzzy set/qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA), we examine the "causal conditions" linked to political and legal opposition to these projects. We find that both Western funding of projects and public consultation serve as necessary political opportunities encouraging mobilization. In addition, not compensating the host country for involvement in the project is linked to mobilization. Finally, some risk from the project, in the form of environmental or social impact, is associated with mobilization; however, this impact does not have to be very significant for mobilization to occur.

McCammon, Holly J., Soma Chaudhuri, Lyndi Hewitt, Courtney Sanders Muse, Harmony D. Newman, Carrie Lee Smith, and Teresa M. Terrell. 2008. "Becoming Full Citizens: The U.S. Women's Jury Rights Campaigns, the Pace of Reform, and Strategic Adaptation." American Journal of Sociology 113 (4):1104-47.

Abstract: Few studies of social movement political success investigate the strategic and tactical approaches used to achieve positive political outcomes. This work investigates a rarely studied mobilization of U.S. women in the first half of the 20th century to explore how movement organizations bring about legal change. Archival data for 15 states are examined to investigate how women won the right to sit on juries. The authors argue that jury movement activists engaged in strategic adaptation were more likely to win a change in jury laws rapidly. Those not engaged in such strategic action won their reforms more slowly. The authors suggest that when social movement actors tailor their actions to respond to exigencies in the environment they are more likely to expedite political success.

McDonald, William J. 1996. "Influences on the Adoption of Global Marketing Decision Support Systems: A Management Perspective." International Marketing Review 13 (1):33-45.

Abstract: Develops a model of the influences on adopting global marketing decision support systems (MDSS) by global marketing organizations. The focus is on the expectations, beliefs, concerns, experiences, and implicit theories about global MDSS adoption of 144 senior marketing managers at 43 global firms. From a quantitative analysis of personal interviews, argues for an adoption model which includes controllable, uncontrollable and personal influences. Finds personnel, marketing mix, consumer trends, competitive pressures, economic conditions, technological change, corporate culture, and personal expectations are associated with adoption, while financial issues are associated with non-adoption. Governmental policies and personal experience are associated with both adoption and non-adoption.

McLevey, John. 2014. "Think Tanks, Funding, and the Politics of Policy Knowledge in Canada." Canadian Review of Sociology 51 (1):54-75.

Abstract: The relationships between think tanks and their funders are central to theory and public discourse about the politics of policy knowledge, yet very little research systematically examines these relationships across cases. This article evaluates elite, pluralist, and field theories by analyzing original data on funding and politics for 30 think tanks from 2000 to 2011 with comparative and relational methods. I find that foreign donations help support some conservative think tanks, but that it is a small amount of money relative to other funding sources. Domestically, think tank funding is structured by an opposition between donor-funded conservatives and state-funded centrists. Since 2005, the cluster of conservative think tanks funded by private donors has become tighter, while the cluster of think tanks supported by the state has become looser and more reliant on self-generated revenue and interest and investments. These findings cast doubt on predictions derived from elite and pluralist theories, and offer some support for field theory.

McNamara, Courtney. 2015. "Trade Liberalization, Social Policies and Health: An Empirical Case Study." Globalization and Health 11 (1):42.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study investigates the health impacts of a major liberalization episode in the textile and clothing (T&C) sector. This episode triggered substantial shifts in employment across a wide range of countries. It is the first study to empirically link trade liberalization to health via changes in employment and offers some of the first empirical insights on how trade liberalization interacts with social policies to influence health. METHODS: Data from 32T&C reliant countries were analysed in reference to the pre- and post-liberalization periods of 2000-2004 and 2005-2009. Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was used to examine the association between countries' a) level of development b) labour market and welfare state protections c) T&C employment changes and d) changes in adult female and infant mortality rates. Process tracing was used to further investigate these associations through twelve in-depth country studies. RESULTS: Results from the fsQCA relate changes in employment after the phase-out to both changing adult female and infant mortality rates. Findings from the in-depth country studies suggest that the worsening of adult female mortality rates is related to workers' lack of social protection, both in the context of T&C employment growth and loss. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, it is found that social protection is often inaccessible to the type of workers who may be the most vulnerable to processes of liberalization and that many workers are particularly vulnerable due to the structure of social protection policies. Social policies are therefore found to both moderate pathways to health and influence the type of health-related pathways resulting from trade liberalizing policies.

McVeigh, Rory, Carl Neblett, and Sarah Shafiq. 2006. "Explaining Social Movement Outcomes: Multiorganizational Fields and Hate Crime Reporting." Mobilization: An International Journal 11 (1):23-49.

Abstract: Social movement organizations and nonprofit organizations can affect local communities in numerous ways, some of which are intended and some of which are unintended. Assessing the influence of these organizations is complicated because the effect that an organization has on a community depends in part on the attributes of the community in which it is embedded. This article draws attention to the importance of multiorganizational fields in determining social movement consequences through an analysis of hate crime enforcement and reporting in U.S. counties. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), in combination with more traditional statistical techniques, identifies fifteen configurations of variable attributes that almost always result in reported hate crimes. The analysis shows how measures of civil rights activism, political opportunities, grievances, and multiorganizational fields combine in local settings to produce hate crime reporting with near certainty. Results indicate that the resourcefulness, heterogeneity, and funding sources of the nonprofit sector play a key role in determining whether hate crimes are reported.

Melinder, Karin A. 2007. "Socio-Cultural Characteristics of High versus Low Risk Societies Regarding Road Traffic Safety." Safety Science 45 (3):397-414.

Abstract: In this study, 15 Western European countries were compared for two periods, 1989-1991, and 1997-1999. The aim was to better understand the relation between different socio-cultural factors, regulations related to traffic safety, and fatal traffic deaths. The question is also posed whether such factors are functional in the search for a safety typology aimed to characterize nations with regard to safety. Despite increased similarity regarding traffic regulation, the differences regarding fatal deaths in motor vehicle road accidents remain among the countries studied. The only studied factor that has changed its relation to motor traffic accidents during the two periods is number of cars which has lost its importance. The conclusion of the study is that type of religion and wealth of the country seem to be the most important factors. Type of religion in the country seems to have an impact on values related to safety. Being a Catholic country or not seems to be as important as being a wealthy country or not. Being a non-wealthy Catholic country leads to more traffic accidents than being a wealthy Catholic country. Being a wealthy Catholic country, however, does seem to lead to more traffic accidents than being a similar wealthy but non-Catholic country. A safety typology with three to five categories is found. The most outspoken categories are Catholic, Protestant and Mixed. The five categories should be Non-wealthy Catholic, Wealthy Catholic, Anglo-Saxon, Safe Protestant and Continental Protestant. The typology have similarities to typologies which have been developed in welfare research.

Melinder, Karin A., and Ragnar Andersson. 2001. "The Impact of Structural Factors on the Injury Rate in Different European Countries." European Journal of Public Health 11 (3):301-8.

Abstract: Background: A previous study pointed to there being two kinds of injuries - those with a mainly social genesis and those with a mainly environmental genesis. The aim of this study was to analyse how socioeconomic factors - such as level of economic development, alcohol consumption and unemployment and more cultural factors - such as education and religion - relate to kinds of injury. Methods: Motor vehicle traffic accidents were chosen to represent injuries with a predominantly environmental genesis and suicides those with a mainly social genesis. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) complemented by Pearson correlation was employed. The data come from 12 European countries. Results: Four groups of countries emerged from the analysis. Group 1 was high on both kinds of injuries and was also high on all the independent variables considered. Group 2 was low on social injuries and high on environmental injuries; it had a low level of economic development, high alcohol consumption and a high proportion of Roman Catholics. Group 3 was high on social injuries and low on environmental injuries; it had a high level of economic development, low alcohol consumption and few Roman Catholics. Group 4 was low on both kinds of injuries; the independent variables formed a similar pattern to those of group 3. Conclusion: The pattern for traffic fatalities differs from that of suicides. There is also patterning with regard to structural factors; economic level, education and religion seem to be more important with regard to injury rate differentials than alcohol consumption or unemployment.

Mello, Patrick A. 2012. "Parliamentary Peace or Partisan Politics? Democracies' Participation in the Iraq War." Journal of International Relations and Development 15 (3):420-53.

Abstract: This paper seeks to explain democracies' military participation in the Iraq War. Prior studies have identified institutional and partisan differences as potential explanatory factors for the observed variance. The interaction of institutions and partisanship, however, has gone largely unobserved. I argue that these factors must be analysed in conjunction: institutional constraints presume actors that fulfil their role as veto players to the executive. Likewise, partisan politics is embedded in institutional frames that enable or constrain decision-making. Hence I suggest a comparative approach that combines these factors to explain why some democracies joined the ad hoc coalition against Iraq and others did not. To investigate the interaction between institutions, partisanship and war participation I apply fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The analysis reveals that the conjunction of right-of-centre governments with an absence of both parliamentary veto rights and constitutional restrictions was sufficient for participation in the Iraq War. In turn, for countries where the constitution requires parliamentary approval of military deployments, the distribution of preferences within the legislature proved to be decisive for military participation or non-participation.
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Metelits, Claire M. 2009. "The Consequences of Rivalry: Explaining Insurgent Violence Using Fuzzy Sets." Political Research Quarterly 62 (4):673-84.

Abstract: The author presents a unique theory of insurgent group behavior using a fuzzy-set approach. In contrast to arguments that place the culpability of insurgent group violence toward noncombatants in the arena of natural resource endowments or the distinctive nature of contemporary conflicts, the author uses a component of qualitative comparative analysis to show that the presence of "active rivalry" is critical in determining the type of behavior insurgent groups will display with regard to local populations they claim to represent. The use of fuzzy-set analysis is uncommon in conflict studies yet proves to be a valuable alternative to standard statistical tests.
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Meuer, Johannes. 2014. "Archetypes of Inter-Firm Relations in the Implementation of Management Innovation: A Set-theoretic Study in China's Biopharmaceutical Industry." Organization Studies 35 (1):121-45.

Abstract: Innovation research increasingly focuses on understanding why and how firms implement new management practices, processes or structures. Emerging in the shadow of research on technological innovation, growing evidence points towards the inter-firm relation as an important locus of innovation. Yet although organizational theory suggests discrete alternative inter-firm coordination mechanisms, the literature on management innovation has thus far treated the inter-firm relation as one broad mode of organizing. This study takes a configurational perspective to identify archetypes of inter-firm relations leading to the implementation of management innovation. Using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) to analyse 56 firm partnerships in China's biopharmaceutical industry, the empirical evidence identifies four such discrete inter-firm archetypes: organic coalitions, bureaucratic foundations, coalitions of intense interdependency and reciprocal foundations. The results suggest that the type of interdependency, rather than the coordination mechanisms governing inter-firm relations, leads to the implementation of management innovation.

Meuer, Johannes, Christian Rupietta, and Uschi Backes-Gellner. 2015. "Layers of Co-Existing Innovation Systems." Research Policy 44 (4):888-910.

Abstract: The innovation systems approach, which has taken a prominent position in the academic literature, has also influenced policy-makers around the globe. Most research analyses innovation systems taking a national, regional or sectoral perspective, following a 'technological imperative'. Yet changes in institutional conditions and the importance of non-technological innovation question the accuracy and the relevance of the existing boundaries of innovation systems. These developments ask for a better understanding of how innovation systems integrate within and across different levels. Drawing on a novel combination of configurational and econometric analysis, we analyse 384 Swiss firms and identify five co-existing innovation systems: two generic innovation systems, the autarkic and the knowledge-internalisation; one regional innovation system, the protected hierarchy; and two sectoral innovation systems, the public sciences and the organised learning. The generic innovation systems entail the 'Science, Technology and Innovation' (STI) and the 'Doing, Interacting and Using' (DUI) learning modes. These systems are structurally distinct and do not integrate. In contrast, all regional and sectoral innovation systems integrate the learning modes of the generic innovation systems and complement them with idiosyncratic elements. The perspective on co-existing innovation systems that we develop here indicates the existence of two layers of innovation systems: a 'central' layer that hosts generic innovation systems and that constitutes the foundation for a second 'surface' layer that hosts regional and sectoral innovation systems. We discuss the implications of layers of co-existing innovation systems for policy-makers and future research.

Meyer, Claas, Michaela Reutter, Bettina Matzdorf, Claudia Sattler, and Sarah Schomers. 2015. "Design Rules for Successful Governmental Payments for Ecosystem Services: Taking Agri-Environmental Measures in Germany as an Example." Journal of Environmental Management 157 (0):146-59.

Abstract: In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to financial environmental policy instruments that have played important roles in solving agri-environmental problems throughout the world, particularly in the European Union and the United States. The ample and increasing literature on Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) and agri-environmental measures (AEMs), generally understood as governmental PES, shows that certain single design rules may have an impact on the success of a particular measure. Based on this research, we focused on the interplay of several design rules and conducted a comparative analysis of AEMs' institutional arrangements by examining 49 German cases. We analyzed the effects of the design rules and certain rule combinations on the success of AEMs. Compliance and noncompliance with the hypothesized design rules and the success of the AEMs were surveyed by questioning the responsible agricultural administration and the AEMs' mid-term evaluators. The different rules were evaluated in regard to their necessity and sufficiency for success using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). Our results show that combinations of certain design rules such as environmental goal targeting and area targeting conditioned the success of the AEMs. Hence, we generalize design principles for AEMs and discuss implications for the general advancement of ecosystem services and the PES approach in agri-environmental policies. Moreover, we highlight the relevance of the results for governmental PES program research and design worldwide.

Miethe, Terance D., and Kriss A. Drass. 1999. "Exploring the Social Context of Instrumental and Expressive Homicides: An Application of Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 15 (1):1-21.

Abstract: Using data from the UCR's Supplementary Homicide Reports, the method of qualitative comparative analysis(QCA) is used to examine whether instrumental and expressive homicides are similar or unique in their social context (i.e., combinations of offender, victim, and situational characteristics). Instrumental and expressive homicides are found to have both common and unique social contexts, but the vast majority of homicide incidents involve combinations of individual and situational factors that are common in both general types of homicides. Among subtypes of instrumental (like rape, prostitution, robbery murders) and expressive homicides (like lovers' triangles, brawls, and arguments), there is wide variability in their prevalence of unique and common components. After discussing these results, the paper concludes with illustrations of how QCA may be used in other areas within criminology.

Mihaila, Roxana. 2012. "Post-Accession Effects of Conditionality: New Member States and the Implementation of the EU Competition Policy." Romanian Journal of Political Science 12 (1):102-33.

Abstract: This article looks at the post-accession difficulties of new member states to fulfill the demands of EU membership and considers the degree of Europeanization in the area of competition policy. The article takes a comparative approach and looks at seven of the new Central and Eastern European member states. It analyzes the capacity of their national implementing actors to apply and enforce the EU legislation in area of competition policy. This article builds on theories of Europeanization and conditionality, and rational institutionalism to explain the problems of domestic adaptation to EU requirements in the context of the Eastern enlargement. By applying Fuzzy Sets Qualitative Comparative Analysis, the article examines the domestic causal factors conditioning the implementation process and how they interact in affecting it. The findings show that implementation is country specific and consequently no general path that generates efficient implementation can be derived, but only partial explanations based on various combinations of domestic factors. These observations are also relevant in the current 'EU in crisis' context. Specifically, they offer an indication of the areas vulnerable to the temporary deregulation of competition due to the Commission's flexible approach to implementation in support of governments' efforts to handle the crisis.

Mikalef, Patrick, Adamantia Pateli, Ronald S. Batenburg, and Rogier van de Wetering. 2015. "Purchasing Alignment under Multiple Contingencies: A Configuration Theory Approach." Industrial Management & Data Systems 115 (4):625-45.

Abstract: Purpose: Strategic alignment is a theory-based state that is considered as crucial for organizations in order to realize performance gains from information technology (IT) investments and deployments. Within the domain of purchasing and supply chain management there has been a growing interest on how purchasing strategy can be effectively aligned with IT and what conditions facilitate this state. The purpose of this paper is to investigate complex causal relationships of contingency elements that are key in enabling the "fit" between purchasing strategy and IT. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a configuration theory approach and propose that purchasing alignment is dependent upon patterns of multiple contingencies. In adherence with contingency theory, the authors group these elements as relating to strategic orientation, organizational factors, and purchasing decisions. On a sample of 172 international companies the authors then apply the novel methodology of fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Findings: The paper empirically demonstrates that depending on the strategic orientation that a company follows, there are alternative combinations of elements that lead to high purchasing alignment. For companies following an operational excellence strategic orientation, a high contract binding scheme, or a small firm size facilitates purchasing alignment. Enabling elements for product leadership companies include a decentralized purchasing structure, a broad supplier base, and a large firm size. Purchasing alignment for customer intimacy companies is supported by a centralized purchasing structure, loose contract binding, and a large supplier base. Practical implications: The findings of this study suggest that practitioners aiming to attain a state of purchasing alignment should consider a number of contingency elements in the process. The paper shows that there is equifinality in the configurations that lead to purchasing alignment. This means that attaining purchasing alignment is dependent upon various clusters of contingency elements which must be taken into account when formulating a purchasing strategy. Originality/value: In contrast with past studies examining purchasing alignment as a result of the isolated impact of several antecedents, we applied a configuration theory approach to demonstrate that it is facilitated by the combined impact of a set of cause-effect relationships. In cases were non-linear and synergistic relationships exist between independent variables, this type of research may be a viable alternative.

Miller, Brian W., Paul W. Leslie, and J. Terrence McCabe. 2014. "Coping with Natural Hazards in a Conservation Context: Resource-Use Decisions of Maasai Households During Recent and Historical Droughts." Human Ecology 42 (5):753-68.

Abstract: Analyzing people's decisions can reveal key variables that affect their behaviors. Despite the demonstrated utility of this approach, it has not been applied to livelihood decisions in the context of conservation initiatives. We used ethnographic decision modeling in combination with qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to examine the herding decisions of Maasai households living near Tarangire National Park (TNP) during recent and historical droughts. The effects of the establishment of TNP on herding practices during drought were different than anticipated based on the size and reliability of several prominent resource areas that are now within the park. We found little evidence of people relying on these swamps and rivers for watering cattle during historical droughts; rather, these sites were more commonly used as grazing areas for small stock and wet-season grazing areas for cattle to avoid disease carried by calving wildebeest. Yet during the 2009 drought, many herders moved their livestock - especially cattle from outside of the study area - toward TNP in search of grazing. Our analysis of herding decisions demonstrates that resource-use decisions are complex and incorporate a variety of information beyond the size or reliability of a given resource area, including contextual factors (e.g., disease, conflict, grazing) and household factors (e.g., social capital, labor, herd size). More broadly, this research illustrates that pairing decision modeling with QCA is a structured approach to identifying these factors and understanding how opportunities, constraints, and perceptions influence how people respond to changes in resource access.

Misangyi, Vilmos F., and Abhijith G. Acharya. 2014. "Substitutes or Complements? A Configurational Examination of Corporate Governance Mechanisms." Academy of Management Journal 57 (6):1681-705.

Abstract: We conduct an exploratory qualitative comparative case analysis of the S&P 1500 firms with the aim of elaborating theory on how corporate governance mechanisms work together effectively. To do so, we integrate extant theory and research to specify the bundle of mechanisms that operate to mitigate the agency problem among publicly traded corporations and review what previous research has said about how these mechanisms combine. We then use the fuzzy-set approach to qualitative comparitive analysis (QCA) to explore the combinations of governance mechanisms that exist among the S&P 1500 firms that achieve high (and not-high) profitability. Our findings suggest that high profits result when CEO incentive alignment and monitoring mechanisms work together as complements rather than as substitutes. Furthermore, they show that high profits are obtained when both internal and external monitoring mechanisms are present. At the same time, however, monitoring mechanisms evidently combine in complex ways such that there may be simultaneity of substitution and complementarity among and across the various monitoring and control mechanisms. Our findings clearly suggest that the effectiveness of board independence and CEO non-duality - governance mechanisms widely believed to singularly resolve the agency problem - depends on how each combine with the other mechanisms in the governance bundle.

Misra, Joya. 2003. "Women as Agents in Welfare State Development: A Cross-National Analysis of Family Allowance Adoption." Socio-Economic Review 1 (2):185-214.

Abstract: While comparative case studies have examined the importance of women as agents in creating and transforming the welfare state, and cross-national research has confirmed that women's labour force participation appears to both shape and be shaped by welfare policies and spending, little cross-national research has explored the roles of women activists in policy adoption. This research explores the case of the adoption of family allowance policies during the interwar and World War II/post-war period in 18 large industrialized welfare states using a qualitative comparative analysis that traces different "paths" to family allowance adoption. The strength of working - class movements plays a key role in creating family allowances in almost every context, but is combined with two different factors - Catholic populations (for countries such as France, The Netherlands and Austria) and women's movements within the Left (for countries such as the UK, Sweden and Norway). This research illustrates that in certain contexts and at certain time periods, women activists played a key role in creating family policies, presenting a more complete model of women's roles in welfare state transformation.
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Mitar, Miran. 2010. "Bailey's Social Entropy Theory as an Explicit Theoretical Approach for an Empirical Assessment of Security of Contemporary Societies." Quality & Quantity 44 (5):941-55.

Abstract: The aim of the article, based on my doctoral thesis (Mitar, Theoretical and Methodological comparison of selected approaches for assessment of security of modern society, Ph.D. Dissertation, 2005), is to present my slight modification of Bailey's SET as an explicit theoretical approach for an empirical assessment of security of contemporary societies. I formed a model D=f(PLOTIS), in which component D was defined (various deviant or unwanted phenomena - in present article measured by the number of deaths in violent conflicts), which was conditioned by macro-societal factors (Population, Level-of-living, Organisation, Technology, Information, Space), denoted by acronym PLOTIS. The model is tested by cross-sectional design, 19 (non-random) chosen former European socialist countries are compared, available secondary data at the end of a period of transition (1989-2002) are used. The model is tested by different methods of analysis: descriptive statistics, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) and descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA). The comparison of results acquired by different methods confirmed usefulness of the modified SET as starting point for formation and testing of hypotheses about the influence of macro-societal characteristics (measured by PLOTIS) on unwanted phenomena. Last but not least, some proposals for further research are presented.

Møller, Jørgen, and Svend-Erik Skaaning. 2009. "The Three Worlds of Post-Communism: Revisiting Deep and Proximate Explanations." Democratization 16 (2):298-322.

Abstract: Since the upheavals of 1989-1991, the post-communist countries have embarked upon three distinct political trajectories: a path leading to democracy in the Western part of the setting, a path leading to autocracy in the Eastern part of the setting, and an intermediate path - both in geographical and political terms - leading to 'defective' democracy. This article seeks to explain the emergence of these three worlds of post-communism. Using typological theory as the principal methodological tool, we revisit Herbert Kitschelt's distinction between deep (structural) and proximate (actor-centred) explanations. The empirical results show that the post-communist setting is characterized by striking regularities in the form of clustering in the explanandum as well as the explanans. The orderings of referents on both the deep and the proximate attributes show a remarkable co-variation with the political pathways of post-communism - and with each other. The presence of such systematic empirical regularities lends support to two conclusions. First, both kinds of explanations elucidate the present variation in post-communist political regime types. Second, the variation on the deep factors largely explains the variation on the proximate factors. Kitschelt's general plea to dig deeper is thus supported, and the explanatory quest turns into a challenge of theoretical integration.
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Moraski, Bryon J. 2013. "Constructing Courts after Communism: Reevaluating the Effect of Electoral Uncertainty." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 46 (4):433-43.

Abstract: A prominent view in political science is that electoral uncertainty leads institutional designers to prefer independent and powerful courts. Yet few scholars have examined the design of constitutional courts systematically across Eastern Europe and those who have employed the results of elections held after constitutions were adopted to estimate the actors' perceptions of the balance of power prior to the court's design. This work reevaluates the effects of electoral uncertainty in post-communist Europe using more appropriate data and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to outline the different causal configurations linking electoral uncertainty to the initial judicial empowerment.

Moritz, Mark, Julia Giblin, Miranda Ciccone, Andréa Davis, Jesse Fuhrman, Masoumeh Kimiaie, Stefanie Madzsar, Kyle Olson, and Matthew Senn. 2011. "Social Risk-Management Strategies in Pastoral Systems: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Cross-Cultural Research 45 (3):286-317.

Abstract: Pastoralists risk losing their livelihood overnight due to drought, disease, and other disasters. They employ different strategies to minimize these risks, including the following: Mobility, herd maximization, diversification, and social strategies. Social strategies are considered critical because they provide not only a safety net during disasters but also contribute to the resilience of pastoral societies by allowing pastoralists to rebuild herds after disasters. There is, however, much variation in social risk-management strategies (SRMS) across pastoral societies. To understand this variation, we conducted a comparative study of 20 pastoral societies from different socioeconomic, historical, and environmental settings. We used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to examine which causal configurations explain the variation in SRMS. This analytical approach helped us to identify four clusters of pastoral groups, in which different causal configurations are associated with exchange networks, patron-client relations, and noninstitutional SRMS.
Set

Moury, Catherine. 2004. "Les Ensembles Flous pour y Voir Plus Clair: Décoder les Caractéristiques des Accords de Coalition en Europe Occidentale." Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée 11 (1):105-15.

Abstract: Cette contribution vise à comprendre pourquoi le caractère complet et / ou précis de l'accord de coalition varie dans quatre pays européens (Belgique, Pays-Bas, Italie et France). La méthode des Ensembles flous (Fuzzy sets) est appropriée pour ce faire, vu le caractère exploratoire de la recherche, car elle permet le nécessaire dialogue entre idées et preuves. Les résultats suggèrent qu'il convient de considérer la rédaction de l'accord comme un jeu à deux niveaux: entre les partis mais aussi entre le gouvernement et les partis qui le soutiennent.

Muench, Stefan. 2015. "Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential of Electricity from Biomass." Journal of Cleaner Production 103 (0):483-90.

Abstract: In the European Union, the share of renewable energy has increased significantly over the past few years. Among renewable energy options, bioenergy is considered to be the dominant energy source. Previous literature is inconclusive regarding the suitability of bioenergy to mitigate greenhouse gases. The goal of this paper is to address this research gap. Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of biomass systems for electricity generation were gathered via a systematic literature review and form the empirical basis of this study. A quantitative exploratory analysis and a Qualitative Comparative Analysis were carried out to identify the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of different biomass systems used for electricity generation. Significant variations in LCA results are due to the heterogeneity of these systems; therefore, the transferability of LCA results to similar systems must be investigated on a case-by-case basis. Results show that electricity from biomass can be an appropriate measure for greenhouse gas mitigation in the European Union. To mitigate greenhouse gases, it is recommended to promote the employment of (1) non-dedicated lignocellulosic biomass with thermochemical conversion, (2) dedicated lignocellulosic biomass with thermochemical conversion, and (3) dedicated lignocellulosic biomass with direct combustion. For a more holistic assessment, future research should focus not only on greenhouse gas emissions, but also on other environmental, economic, and social impact categories.

Muñoz, Pablo, and Dimo Dimov. 2015. "The Call of the Whole in Understanding the Development of Sustainable Ventures." Journal of Business Venturing 30 (4):632-54.

Abstract: This paper examines the development process of sustainable ventures by focusing on three substantive markers, namely the ideas, actions, and exchange relationships articulated and instigated by the entrepreneurs in question. Based on data from 45 sustainability-oriented new ventures, it examines the causal configurations behind the manifestations of these markers using Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparison Analysis (fsQCA). The analysis also reveals two distinct opportunity development paths. The first, conformist, operates in an enabling supporting context as sustainability conveyor. The second, insurgent, path operates as a change agent against an establishment that is not conducive to sustainability ideals.

Musheno, Michael C., Peter R. Gregware, and Kriss A. Drass. 1991. "Court Management of AIDS Disputes: A Sociolegal Analysis." Law & Social Inquiry 16 (4):737-74.

Abstract: Historically, disease scares reveal contradictions in the social order. We postulate that courts focus on depoliticizing social tensions revealed by AIDS, legitimating the routines of dominant parties in the AIDS sociolegal network. At the same time, courts deviate from their normal practices by upholding the claims of subordinate parties in this network, particularly people living with AIDS (PWAs) and their allies. Our analysis of 36 AIDS-related court rulings, published during the formative years of AIDS litigation in the United States, supports the notion that courts operate as "double-edged" institutions. To explain the duality of judicial decision making, we concentrate on the powers of social and cultural factors rather than on the doctrinal judgments of the courts. We trace how relational attributes, evident in contestants' characteristics (e.g., plaintiff/defendant, status differentials) and the nature of claims (i.e., restrictive/expansive), combine to account for wins for dominant parties and how other combinations of these attributes define wins for subordinate parties. We also show how judges combine specific interpretational attributes in the text of their rulings (e.g., use of divisive AIDS metaphors, deference to medical authority) to justify wins. We consolidate these findings to discuss how PWAs and their allies might use the courts to their advantage and point out the ways in which the changing epidemiology of AIDS in the United States limits the use of courts.

Nair, Sreeja, and Michael Howlett. 2015. "Scaling up of Policy Experiments and Pilots: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis and Lessons for the Water Sector." Water Resources Management 29 (14):4945-61.

Abstract: The use of experimentation by practitioners and resource managers as a policy instrument for effective policy design under complex and dynamic conditions has been well-acknowledged both in theory and practice. For issues such as water resource management, policy experimentation, especially pilot projects, can play an important role in exploring alternate courses of action when faced with long-term uncertainty. While the political aspects of experimentation design and outcomes have been alluded to by several policy scholars, there is lack of empirical evidence that explores their interplay with other factors that may also be critical for scaling up of policy experiments. This paper examines experiences with scaling up of different types of water policy experiments through a Qualitative Comparative Analysis of fifteen pilot initiatives in multiple sectors. Presence of political support is found to be necessary for scaling up in 97 % of the cases studied, followed closely by the need for synergies with ongoing policies and programmes. When in combination with effective pilot planning and strong monitoring and evaluation, both these factors create a sufficient condition for successful scaling up in nearly 60 % of the cases studied.

Never, Babette, and Joachim Betz. 2014. "Comparing the Climate Policy Performance of Emerging Economies." World Development 59 (0):1-15.

Abstract: Domestic climate policies and the actual environmental performance differ between emerging economies. Using a fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), this paper tests the influence of the domestic green industry, the ratio of fossil fuels to financial power, the international negotiating position, and the environmental civil society in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Mexico, and South Africa. A bad ratio of domestic fossil fuel production to financial power and a weak environmental civil society are a sufficient condition for weak climate policy performance. A weak domestic green industry combined with a weak influence of the negotiations only explains some of the cases.

Ni, Na, Carolyn Egri, Carlos Lo, and Carol Yeh-Yun Lin. 2015. "Patterns of Corporate Responsibility Practices for High Financial Performance: Evidence from Three Chinese Societies." Journal of Business Ethics 126 (2):169-83.

Abstract: The growing literature on corporate responsibility (CR) has drawn attention to how different CR practices complement each other and interact in the form of configurations. This study investigated CR patterns associated with high financial performance for 466 firms in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. We applied a set-theoretic approach using qualitative comparative analysis to identify similarities and differences across these three societies in configurations of CR practices relating to customer, employee, investor, community, and environmental stakeholder groups. The extent to which the financial benefits of various configurations of CR practices are attributable to institutional factors is examined.

Nieto Morales, Fernando, Rafael Wittek, and Liesbet Heyse. 2015. "Organizational Pathways to Compliant Reform Implementation: Evidence from Mexican Civil Service Reform." Public Administration 93 (3):646-62.

Abstract: A technocratic pathway to public management reform stresses the need for committing sizeable resources to reform implementation. Building on an institutional framework, we argue that there are alternative pathways to compliant implementation for government agencies with limited resources. Our comparative study of 55 Mexican government agencies that were the object of the 2003 Civil Service Reform Act reveals the co-occurrence of both technocratic and institutional pathways to compliant implementation. The common denominator across pathways in organizations with limited resources was the absence of strong oppositional norms (patronage) and the presence of robust interpersonal trust. We conclude that the role played by available resources in compliant reform implementation is far from straightforward, and depends on different combinations of public organizations' endogenous characteristics.

Nunes, Joseph C., and Andrea Ordanini. 2014. "I Like the Way it Sounds: The Influence of Instrumentation on a Pop Song's Place in the Charts." Musicae Scientiae 18 (4):392-409.

Abstract: The way a song sounds depends on, among other things, what instruments are audible to the listener. We document the systematic relationship between instrumentation, or the particular combination of instruments audible in a hit song, and its relative market appeal vis-à-vis its place on the charts. This is accomplished using mixed analytical methods under ecologically valid conditions. The data come from Billboard's Hot 100 weekly popularity rankings from the past 55 years. We compare number 1 singles with songs that never climbed above number 90. First, using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), we identify two configurations of core instruments that result in a song being more popular such that these configurations are present far more consistently among the set of number 1 hit songs. We also identify three configurations of core instruments that result in a song being less popular such that these configurations are present far more consistently among songs that stagnate at the bottom of the charts. What stands out is popular (less popular) configurations always include (exclude) background vocals. Further, our qualitative results reveal number 1 songs tend to include a greater number of instruments. Second, we utilize logit regression to document how the absolute number of distinct instrument types perceptible in a song affects the chances it will be a number 1 hit as opposed to stay at or below number 90. Our results suggest songs that do not follow conventional instrumentation and instead include an atypically low or high number of instruments are more likely to stand out, becoming number 1 hits. Looking across time, a greater number of instruments increased the chances of being a number1 song during mid-1970s, the 1980s and the 1990s, while fewer instruments increased the chances during the 1960s and in the late 2000s.

O'Neil, Kathleen M. 2008. "Bringing Art to Market: The Diversity of Pricing Styles in a Local Art Market." Poetics: Journal of Empirical Research on Culture, the Media and the Arts 36 (1):94-113.

Abstract: This paper examines the pricing of visual art from the perspective of artists themselves. Based on interviews with 53 visual artists, the most common factors involved in pricing decisions are identified: size, expenses, status, market factors, and the artist's own perception of value. Using Correspondence Analysis and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), relationships between the components of pricing decisions are described. First, the analysis reveals that some producers of art take a craft orientation to production and distribution, while others take a fine art approach. These distinct orientations shape pricing decisions. Second, pricing based on an artist's own determination of aesthetic worth tends not to be combined with pricing based on market factors like demand. While patterns of pricing decisions are uncovered, the complexities of actual pricing decisions demonstrate that working artists negotiate lives that blend instrumental economic activity with creative self-expression, belief in fairness, and community norms both inside and outside the art world.

Oestreicher, Jordan S., Karina Benessaiah, Maria C. Ruiz-Jaen, Sean Sloan, Kate Turner, Johanne Pelletier, Bruno Guay, Kathryn E. Clark, Dominique G. Roche, Manfred Meiners, and Catherine Potvin. 2009. "Avoiding Deforestation in Panamanian Protected Areas: An Analysis of Protection Effectiveness and Implications for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation." Global Environmental Change 19 (2):279-91.

Abstract: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is likely to be central to a post-Kyoto climate change mitigation agreement. As such, identifying conditions and factors that will shape the success or failure of a reduced deforestation scheme will provide important insights for policy planning. Given that protected areas (PAs) are a cornerstone in forest conservation, we draw on interviews and secondary data to analyze the effects of available PA resources, governance ability, the level of community involvement, and provincial deforestation rates on land-cover change in nine PAs in Panama. Our results illustrate that coupling surveillance measures with greater funding and strong governance are paramount to reducing deforestation. Alone, however, these factors are insufficient for forest protection. We argue that conservation approaches that complement effective surveillance with community participation and equitable benefit sharing will address the wider issues of leakage and permanence.

Oldekop, Johan A., Anthony J. Bebbington, D. A. N. Brockington, and Richard F. Preziosi. 2010. "Understanding the Lessons and Limitations of Conservation and Development." Conservation Biology 24 (2):461-9.

Abstract: The lack of concrete instances in which conservation and development have been successfully merged has strengthened arguments for strict exclusionist conservation policies. Research has focused more on social cooperation and conflict of different management regimes and less on how these factors actually affect the natural environments they seek to conserve. Consequently, it is still unknown which strategies yield better conservation outcomes? We conducted a meta-analysis of 116 published case studies on common resource management regimes from Africa, south and central America, and southern and Southeast Asia. Using ranked sociodemographic, political, and ecological data, we analyzed the effect of land tenure, population size, social heterogeneity, as well as internally devised resource-management rules and regulations (institutions) on conservation outcome. Although land tenure, population size, and social heterogeneity did not significantly affect conservation outcome, institutions were positively associated with better conservation outcomes. There was also a significant interaction effect between population size and institutions, which implies complex relationships between population size and conservation outcome. Our results suggest that communities managing a common resource can play a significant role in conservation and that institutions lead to management regimes with lower environmental impacts.

Olufadi, Yunusa. 2015. "A Configurational Approach to the Investigation of the Multiple Paths to Success of Students through Mobile Phone Use Behaviors." Computers & Education 86 (0):84-104.

Abstract: We addressed two shortcomings in the existing studies that focused on the association between students' academic performance (SAP) and their mobile phone use behaviors (MPUB) in this study by conducting a self-report, student-based cross-sectional study in two Nigerian universities between February and March 2014. We collected the data for the study from 286 students in the two universities using a convenience-based sampling approach. The data were analyzed using fsQCA version 2.0 and hierarchical linear (blocked) regression (HLR). The HLR results reveal that time spent calling on phone was the only significant predictor of SAP out of the seven MPUB variables (addiction, distraction, dependence, multitasking, time spent calling, time spent using social networking sites and perception on the effect of MPUB on SAP) considered. It further revealed that students' hours of study per day explains more of the variations in SAP than their MPUB. More so, none of the MPUB variables individually meets the minimum consistency score of .85, indicating that no single MPUB variable is by itself sufficient to influence SAP. However, implementing the MPUB variables as a configuration reveals that there are three pathways to attaining high academic achievements. The major finding of the present study suggests that combining several MPUB variables may be more effective than focusing on individual MPUB variables when investigating the relationship between SAP and their MPUB.

Ordanini, Andrea, and Paul P. Maglio. 2009. "Market Orientation, Internal Process, and External Network: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Key Decisional Alternatives in the New Service Development." Decision Sciences 40 (3):601-25.

Abstract: Scholars from different disciplines acknowledge the importance of studying new service development (NSD), which is considered a central process for sustaining a superior competitive advantage of service firms. Although extant literature provides several important insights into how NSD processes are structured and organized, there is much less evidence on what makes NSD processes successful, that is, capable of contributing to a firm's sales and profits. In other words, which are the decisions that maximize the likelihood of developing successful new services? Drawing on the emerging "service-dominant logic" paradigm, we address this question by developing an NSD framework with three main decisional nodes: market orientation, internal process organization, and external network. Using a qualitative comparative analysis technique, we discovered combinations of alternatives that maximize likelihood of establishing a successful service innovation. Specifically, we tested our NSD framework in the context of hospitality services and found that successful NSD can be achieved through two sets of decisions. The first one includes the presence of a proactive market orientation (PMO) and a formal top-down innovative process, but the absence of a responsive market orientation. The second one includes the presence of both responsive and PMO and an open innovation model. No single element was a sufficient condition for NSD success, though PMO was a necessary condition. Several implications for theory and decision-making practice are discussed on the basis of our findings.

Ordanini, Andrea, A. Parasuraman, and Gaia Rubera. 2014. "When the Recipe Is More Important Than the Ingredients: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) of Service Innovation Configurations." Journal of Service Research 17 (2):134-49.

Abstract: Service innovation is a primary source of competitive advantage and a research priority. However, empirical evidence about the impact of innovativeness on new service adoption is inconclusive. A plausible explanation is that service innovation has thus far been studied using new product frameworks that do not fully capture the complexity of new service assessments by customers. We propose a different, holistic framework, which posits that new service adoption does not depend on individual service attributes, but on specific configurations of such attributes. We investigate this framework in a luxury hotel service context, using qualitative comparative analysis, a set-membership technique that is new to service research and suitable for configuration analyses. Results confirm that individual service attributes have complex trade-off effects and that only specific combinations of attributes act as sufficient conditions for new service adoption. Moreover, the composition of such combinations differs according to the different coproduction requirements. Our findings contribute to managerial practice by providing new insights for improving the service-development process and the launch strategy for new services. They also augment extant service knowledge by demonstrating why interdependencies among various innovation attributes are important to consider for gaining an accurate understanding of new service adoption.

Ortega-Marín, Lydia, Margarita Márquez-Serrano, Luz M. Lara-López, Ligia I. Moncada, and Alvaro J. Idrovo. 2013. "Effect of Households' Social Networks on Lice Infestation among Vulnerable Mexican Children: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 59 (5):413-8.

Abstract: The prevalence of pediculosis is high among elementary and secondary school children, which favors the belief that infestation occurs more often in schools than in homes. This study explored the role of households' social networks in the transmission of head lice. Seventeen school children and their social networks (n = 22) from Acatlipa (Morelos, Mexico) participated in a prospective observational study during school vacation. The hair of all the school children was washed with shampoo containing permethrin at the beginning of the study and the incidence of pediculosis (O) was evaluated at the beginning of the school term (follow-up at 1.5 months). The sets included in the qualitative comparative analysis were sex (S), length of hair (H), baseline diagnostic of pediculosis (I) and degree (D) and infestation index (N) obtained through the analysis of social networks. The prevalence of pediculosis was the same at the beginning and the end of follow-up (17.6%). The degree of the school children's networks ranged between 2 and 14. There were 8 configurations, the most frequent being F*i*d*n*h. The most parsimonious configuration associated with the incidence of pediculosis was F*I*d*H (female, previous infestation, low degree and long hair), with a coverage of 0.344 and a consistency of 0.941. Indicators of social networks made it possible to identify the role of households' social networks in the transmission of lice. Individual actions such as the use of shampoo containing insecticides are temporary and, therefore, structural actions should be favored.

Osa, Maryjane, and Cristina Corduneanu-Huci. 2003. "Running Uphill: Political Opportunity in Non-Democracies." Comparative Sociology 2 (4):605-29.

Abstract: This study analyzes twenty-four cases of occurrence/nonoccurrence of mobilization in non-democratic states to determine conditions of political opportunity in high-risk authoritarian contexts. Ragin's (1987) Boolean method of qualitative comparison (QCA 3.0) is used to identify specific configurations of conditions that constitute political opportunity in nondemocracies. We find that political opportunity is sensitive to conditions created by divided elites, changes in repression, media access, influential allies, and social networks. Our analysis identifies four configurations that create an opening for mobilization under authoritarian conditions. The key factors, identified by QCA in the most parsimonious model, are media access and social networks. These two factors are sufficient conditions for producing mobilization in non-democratic states.
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Ozegowski, Susanne. 2013. "Effective Policy Mechanisms for an Equitable Geographical Distribution of General Practitioners: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of the Accessibility of Primary Care in Europe." Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 18 (3):151-9.

Abstract: Objectives: To explore the effectiveness of four different policy mechanisms in achieving a more equitable geographical distribution of general practitioners (GPs) in European countries. The following mechanisms were analysed: (1) interventions during medical training; (2) financial incentives; (3) quotas to allocate GPs to regions and (4) capitation-based remuneration. Methods: A macro-comparative method, namely, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, was employed to explore the distributional effectiveness of the four mechanisms. A literature review yielded information on the use of these mechanisms in the 21 European countries included, while country-specific equity in the geographic GP distribution served as the outcome variable. Results: Quotas determining the number of GPs per region proved to be highly effective in producing an equitable GP distribution if calculated based on health care needs. Remunerating GPs largely through capitation payments also proved to be an effective policy mechanism. Financial bonuses to GPs practising in under-served areas and interventions during medical training had little or no impact. Conclusion: Several high income countries have a maldistribution of primary care physicians to the detriment of rural or socially deprived areas. Policy makers have instituted a variety of policies to counter this. This study helps to identify mechanisms which are likely to be more and less effective.
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Pahl-Wostl, Claudia, and Christian Knieper. 2014. "The Capacity of Water Governance to Deal with the Climate Change Adaptation Challenge: Using Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis to Distinguish between Polycentric, Fragmented and Centralized Regimes." Global Environmental Change 29 (0):139-54.

Abstract: The notion of polycentric governance has become increasingly popular in recent years. Such development may be attributed to expectations that polycentric governance systems have a higher capacity to deal with complex challenges arising from global and climate change. Most often, employed interpretations of polycentricity emphasize the presence of several independent centers of authority in a governance domain. A commonly neglected feature of polycentric governance, as introduced by Elinor and Vincent Ostrom, is that this concept entails as well operation under one set of overall accepted rules. This paper analyzes the underlying feature of effective polycentric governance and makes a distinction between polycentric, fragmented, and centralized governance regimes. An empirical analysis of water governance systems in 27 national river basins using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) shows that a set of factors associated with polycentricity has the highest explanatory power for high performance regarding climate change adaptation. Factors associated with fragmented and centralized regimes can be identified for paths leading to low performance. Furthermore, the analysis identifies the effectiveness of formal institutions as important condition, in particular for paths leading toward low performance. The paper elaborates on these findings and discusses as well the potential of fsQCA in such comparative analyses.
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Pajunen, Kalle. 2008. "Institutions and Inflows of Foreign Direct Investment: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis." Journal of International Business Studies 39 (4):652-69.

Abstract: This study addresses the essential question of causal complexity and diversity related to the influence of institutions on the direct investments (FDI) of multinational enterprises. Using a relatively new methodological approach of fuzzy-set analysis, and 47 host countries from the period 1999 to 2003, the paper analyses how and why countries with different degrees of membership in different institutional constraints either attract or do not attract FDI. The findings show that institutional factors have diverse influences. Similar institutions may even be associated with different outcomes if different regional categories of countries are examined. Countries may neither be attractive nor unattractive owing to the presence or absence of a single institutional factor. Instead, the outcome usually results from a combination of institutional conditions. Moreover, there typically are several possible paths to a specific outcome. The study confirms some of the propositions of previous theory, but, most importantly, it explains why earlier research has provided conflicting conclusions related to institutional factors. The study also offers an approach for future international business research to apply fuzzy-set methods and develop mid-range theories.
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Palm, Trineke. 2013. "Embedded in Social Cleavages: An Explanation of the Variation in Timing of Women's Suffrage." Scandinavian Political Studies 36 (1):1-22.

Abstract: Under which conditions did introduction of women's suffrage occur before the First World War (early), and when only after the Second World War (late)? This article analyses necessary and sufficient conditions to explain both early and late introduction of women's suffrage in 14 Western European countries using Rokkan's cleavage theory, which distinguishes between four cleavages: religious, ethnic-linguistic, class and sectoral. In addition to testing Rokkan's cleavage theory, this study adds a structural dimension to agency-based studies on the role of the women's movement, which helps to explain why some such movements had much earlier success than others. Finally, this article advances the democratisation literature that takes the timing of the introduction of male suffrage as a proxy for the timing of the introduction of women's suffrage, as the timing of the introduction of male suffrage does not necessarily mean early introduction of women's suffrage. Based on fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the article shows that the absence of an ethnic-linguistic cleavage is a necessary condition for early introduction of women's suffrage. Moreover, the fuzzy-set analysis highlights that the absence of a religious cleavage combined with a class cleavage or a sectoral cleavage combined with the absence of a class cleavage is sufficient for early introduction of women's suffrage. Concerning late introduction of women's suffrage, it is the combination of a class cleavage with a religious cleavage or the presence of an ethnic-linguistic cleavage in the absence of a sectoral cleavage that prove to be sufficient.
Raw Set

Pappas, Ilias O., Panos E. Kourouthanassis, Michail N. Giannakos, and Vassilios Chrissikopoulos. 2016. "Explaining Online Shopping Behavior with fsQCA: The Role of Cognitive and Affective Perceptions." Journal of Business Research 69 (2):794-803.

Abstract: This study uses complexity theory to explain and better understand the causal patterns of factors stimulating online shopping behavior in personalized e-commerce environments. To this end, it identifies cognitive and affective perceptions as essential factors in online shopping behavior and proposes a conceptual model along with research propositions. To test its propositions, it employs fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) on a sample of 582 experienced online shoppers. Findings indicate nine configurations of cognitive and affective perceptions that explain high intention to purchase. This study, contributes to the literature 1) by offering new insights into the relation among the predictors of online shopping behavior and 2) advancing the theoretical ground of how customers' cognitive and affective perceptions combine to better explain high purchase intentions. The findings support the need for online shopping environments to be more interactive in order to target customers' cognitive and affective perceptions, and increase their intention to purchase.

Park, Sung Ho. 2013. "Capital Openness, Monetary Integration, and Wage-Setting Coordination in Developed European Countries." Economic and Industrial Democracy 34 (4):637-66.

Abstract: How capital openness influences the wage-setting process is a topic that has been discussed extensively in the literature on European industrial relations. One well-known hypothesis asserts that high capital openness induces employers to de-coordinate the wage-setting process, if wage costs have been under poor control. This article provides a critical review of the hypothesis, arguing that it holds only if governments can provide flexible accommodating policies for employers during the period of institutional transition. If such policy options are not available, which is true when governments are committed to European monetary integration, the hypothesis does not hold. This claim is tested with a Boolean qualitative analysis of 11 European countries, focusing on the periods from the 1970s to early 2000s.

Park, Sung Ho, and Kevin L. Young. 2015. "Wage Moderation in the Public Sector: The Experiences of 11 EMU Countries in the Recent Economic Crisis, 2008-2010." Economic and Industrial Democracy 36 (4):575-609.

Abstract: The factors that influence wage moderation policies across European countries have been a focus of industrial relations literature for some time. Given the lack of direct market discipline on public sector wages, most existing accounts suggest that the determinants of public sector wages are due to institutional characteristics of the national wage-setting system in question. In this article the authors suggest an alternative 'functionalist' explanation of public sector wage determination, with an emphasis on the role of public fiscal constraints and macroeconomic stress. Drawing on new data from 11 EMU countries during the recent economic crisis of 2008-2010 and engaging in a cross-national analysis using Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), the authors demonstrate that the functionalist explanation performs better than the institutionalist one in a crisis period.
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Pattyn, Valérie. 2014. "Why Organizations (do not) Evaluate? Explaining Evaluation Activity through the Lens of Configurational Comparative Methods." Evaluation 20 (3):348-67.

Abstract: This article aims at explaining why some Flemish (Belgian) organizations evaluate policy, while others do not. The study relies on a unique combination of two configurational comparative methods: the Most Similar Different Outcome/Most Different Similar Outcome method and crisp set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. This combination of methods helps us unravel the combinations of conditions that promote or impede policy evaluation activity in a public administration that recently underwent major changes in line with New Public Management (NPM). The analysis reveals that the impact of NPM reforms on evaluation activity should not be overestimated. The results suggest that the important conditions that explain policy evaluation activity or inactivity are the anchorage of the evaluation function, the availability of skilled personnel to undertake evaluations, evaluation demand from organizational management, and the measurability of the outputs and outcomes of the organization's activities.

Pattyn, Valerie, and Marleen Brans. 2014. "Explaining Organizational Variety in Evaluation Quality Assurance: Which Conditions Matter?" International Journal of Public Administration 37 (6):363-75.

Abstract: The growth in evaluation practice has not always gone hand in hand with an increase in the actual quality of these evaluations. This article addresses this concern, by examining the factors that explain organizational variety in the application of evaluation quality assurance measures. We present the results of an analysis of 18 Flemish (Belgian) public sector organizations. To unravel different explanatory trajectories, we combine two comparative methods that rely on Boolean analysis: the most similar different outcome/most different similar outcome technique on the one hand, and crisp set qualitative comparative analysis on the other hand.

Pattyn, Valérie, and Marleen Brans. 2015. "Organisational Analytical Capacity: Policy Evaluation in Belgium." Policy and Society 34 (3-4):183-96.

Abstract: Checklists for evaluation capacity builders include a wide range of building blocks for supporting evaluation activity. Yet, the relative importance of each building block is not clear. The purpose of this article is to identify the capacity related factors that are necessary, but not necessarily sufficient, for organisations that wish to institutionalise high quality policy evaluations. To retrieve these factors, we rely on the necessity function in qualitative comparative analysis. We present a study of twenty-seven organisations of the Flemish public sector (Belgium), in which the introduction of policy evaluations is relatively recent. Our case analysis thus sheds an interesting light upon how policy evaluation, and the underlying capacity to evaluate is given shape. Our findings point at evaluation demand as the most necessary prerequisite for fostering evaluation activity, more so than supply related factors.

Paul, Christopher, Colin P. Clarke, and Beth Grill. 2012. "Qualitative Comparative Analysis of 30 Insurgencies, 1978-2008." Military Operations Research 17 (2):19-40.

Abstract: We use Charles Ragin's Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to quantitatively test the performance of 20 distinct counterinsurgency (COIN) approaches against the historical record. This method allowed us to apply mathematical principles to fundamentally qualitative data without compromising the qualitative nuance necessary to identify and resolve exceptions. The five main takeaways from the research were: (1) effective COIN practices tend to run in packs; (2) the balance of effective versus detrimental COIN practices discriminates all 30 cases into wins or losses without recourse to narratives of exceptionality; (3) poor beginnings don't necessarily lead to poor endings; (4) repression wins phases, but usually not cases; (5) insurgent tangible support appears to be a critical center of gravity. Our results provide useful recommendations for US engagement in and support for COIN operations.

Peillon, Michel. 1996. "A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Welfare Legitimacy." Journal of European Social Policy 6 (3):175-90.

Abstract: Most studies of the legitimacy of the welfare state rely on surveys measuring the level of support for social services and benefits. These surveys show that self-interest plays only a sec ondary part in shaping the pattern of support. The latter is then based on general values and, in such circumstances, it can be equated with legitimacy. The relevant literature has clearly identified those welfare programmes which re ceive a high level of support and those which do not, but it loses its clarity with regards to the reasons for various levels of support/legiti macy. This article relies on a comparative method, called Qualitative Comparative analysis (QCA) and based on Boolean algebra, to investigate the factors associated with the legitimacy of selected social programmes in five different countries (Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, Norway).
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Peltoniemi, Mirva. 2014. "How do the Determinants of Firm Survival Change in the Course of the Industry Life Cycle? A Fuzzy-Set Analysis." Technology Analysis & Strategic Management 26 (2):223-39.

Abstract: Industry life-cycle research on firm survival often tests the effects of innovativeness, entry timing, and experience from related industries. However, findings on how these effects change over different stages of the life cycle are scarce. To fill this gap, we perform a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis on a data-set of 58 video game device producers in six product generations. We find that innovation provides a consistent survival advantage only in the mature stage of the life cycle. We also find that experience accumulated within the industry loses its value in the mature stage, and the advantage shifts to de alio entrants only after shake-out. These findings are discussed relating to technological uncertainty, the role of internal and external knowledge, and the construction of sufficient technological performance.

Pennell, Joan, R. V. Rikard, and Tia Sanders-Rice. 2014. "Family Violence: Fathers Assessing and Managing their Risk to Children and Women." Children and Youth Services Review 47, Part 1 (0):36-45.

Abstract: All too often, child protective workers fail to identify domestic violence, thus, endangering both child and adult family members. A potential solution is engaging men who abuse in assessing and managing their own risk to family members. This was the aim of a psycho-educational fathering program developed and tested in the southeastern United States. Over the course of the group, the men set goals on how to relate to their children and to their current or former partners, and they reflected on their achievement of these goals. The men's self-appraisals were supported by their caseworkers' assessments. A comparison of child protection data before and after entry in the group showed an extensive decrease in the families assessed with child protection findings and with household domestic violence. The evaluation used a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) that identified configurations of conditions overlapping with child protection outcomes. Some of the men's characteristics included in these configurations ran counter to predictors usually associated with child maltreatment and domestic violence. The evaluation results point to the unique contributions that QCA can make to risk assessment.

Pennings, Paul. 2003. "Beyond Dichotomous Explanations: Explaining Constitutional Control of the Executive with Fuzzy-Sets." European Journal of Political Research 42 (4):541-67.

Abstract: What are the main variations in the constitutional control of the executive in 45 parliamentary democracies and how can these differences be accounted for? Four competing hypotheses, based on dichotomies, explain the degree of this control by means of contrasting institutional settings: consensus democracy versus majoritarian democracy, presidentialism versus parliamentarism, thick versus thin constitutionalism and established versus new democracies. These hypotheses are tested with the help of fuzzy-sets that allow for varying degrees of membership that go beyond the presence/absence suggested by these dichotomies. The necessary and sufficient conditions for constitutional control are specified with the help of this new methodology. The fuzzy-set analysis shows that the degree of constitutional control can be explained solely by a specific combination of institutional conditions stemming from the four dichotomies, and not by one single dimension. This constellation remains hidden for the traditional correlational techniques like regression. Hence, the fuzzy-set logic presents a promising new tool for comparativists that can be used to reveal causalities.

Perez, Irene, David J. Yu, Marco A. Janssen, and John M. Anderies. 2015. "Social Roles and Performance of Social-Ecological Systems: Evidence from Behavioral Lab Experiments." Ecology and Society 20 (3):23.

Abstract: Social roles are thought to play an important role in determining the capacity for collective action in a community regarding the use of shared resources. Here we report on the results of a study using a behavioral experimental approach regarding the relationship between social roles and the performance of social-ecological systems. The computer-based irrigation experiment that was the basis of this study mimics the decisions faced by farmers in small-scale irrigation systems. In each of 20 rounds, which are analogous to growing seasons, participants face a two-stage commons dilemma. First they must decide how much to invest in the public infrastructure, e.g., canals and water diversion structures. Second, they must decide how much to extract from the water made available by that public infrastructure. Each round begins with a 60-second communication period before the players make their investment and extraction decisions. By analyzing the chat messages exchanged among participants during the communication stage of the experiment, we coded up to three roles per participant using the scheme of seven roles known to be important in the literature: leader, knowledge generator, connector, follower, moralist, enforcer, and observer. Our study supports the importance of certain social roles (e.g., connector) previously highlighted by several case study analyses. However, using qualitative comparative analysis we found that none of the individual roles was sufficient for groups to succeed, i.e., to reach a certain level of group production. Instead, we found that a combination of at least five roles was necessary for success. In addition, in the context of upstream-downstream asymmetry, we observed a pattern in which social roles assumed by participants tended to differ by their positions. Although our work generated some interesting insights, further research is needed to determine how robust our findings are to different action situations, such as biophysical context, social network, and resource uncertainty.

Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal. 2005. "Democratization and Constitutional Crises in Presidential Regimes." Comparative Political Studies 38 (1):51-74.

Abstract: This article explores the impact of democratization on the resolution of executive-legislative crises in Latin American presidential regimes. The author studies 27 episodes in which the executive branch closed the legislature or the legislature removed the chief executive from office between 1950 and 2000. It is hypothesized that the democratization of Latin American presidential systems has hindered the ability of presidents to challenge the legislature and encouraged the emergence of congressional supremacy (i.e., the capacity of congress to impeach the president if a serious conflict emerges). Three causal mechanisms account for this outcome: (a) a lower likelihood of military intervention, (b) the elimination of constitutional tools used by authoritarian presidents to dissolve congress, and (c) greater stability in the constitutional environment. After discussing the limitations of conventional maximum likelihood tests, the author assesses this hypothesis using a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative model.

Perry, Ashley M., and Mark J. Schafer. 2014. "Resilience in Louisiana FEMA Parks: A Person-Centered, Fuzzy-Set Analysis." Sociological Spectrum 34 (1):39-60.

Abstract: Despite living in difficult and socially disorganized conditions, some individuals displaced by disasters and living in FEMA parks can be remarkably resilient to depression. We conceptualize resilience as emerging from a combination of situational advantages that accrue for some residents but not for others. We assess whether situational advantages lead to resilience, either in isolation or in combination with one another, in two parts. First, we used a delimited person-centered analysis (PCA) to identify advantages present among the most resilient and absent among the least resilient FEMA park residents. Second, we used fuzzy-set analysis (FSA) to systematically uncover advantageous individual-level conditions that were consistent among resilient individuals using the full sample of FEMA park respondents. Implications for sociological theory and disaster mental health research are discussed.
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Pinfari, Marco. 2011. "Time to Agree: Is Time Pressure Good for Peace Negotiations?" Journal of Conflict Resolution 55 (5):683-709.

Abstract: This article explores the impact of time pressure on negotiation processes in territorial conflicts in the post-cold war era. While it is often argued that time pressure can help generate positive momentum in peace negotiations and help break deadlocks, extensive literature also suggests that perceived time shortage can have a negative impact on the cognitive processes involved in complex, intercultural negotiations. The analysis explores these hypotheses through a comparison of sixty-eight episodes of negotiation using fuzzy-set logic, a form of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). The conclusions confirm that time pressure can, in certain circumstances, be associated with broad agreements but also that only low levels of time pressure or its absence are associated with durable settlements. The analysis also suggests that the negative effect of time pressure on negotiations is particularly relevant in the presence of complex decision making and when a broad range of debated issues is at stake.

Porter-Bolland, Luciana, Edward A. Ellis, Manuel R. Guariguata, Isabel Ruiz-Mallén, Simoneta Negrete-Yankelevich, and Victoria Reyes-García. 2012. "Community Managed Forests and Forest Protected Areas: An Assessment of Their Conservation Effectiveness Across the Tropics." Forest Ecology and Management 268 (1):6-17.

Abstract: This paper assesses the role of protected and community managed forests for the long term maintenance of forest cover in the tropics. Through a meta-analysis of published case-studies, we compare land use/cover change data for these two broad types of forest management and assess their performance in maintaining forest cover. Case studies included 40 protected areas and 33 community managed forests from the peer reviewed literature. A statistical comparison of annual deforestation rates and a Qualitative Comparative Analysis were conducted. We found that as a whole, community managed forests presented lower and less variable annual deforestation rates than protected forests. We consider that a more resilient and robust forest conservation strategy should encompass a regional vision with different land use types in which social and economic needs of local inhabitants, as well as tenure rights and local capacities, are recognized. Further research for understanding institutional arrangements that derive from local governance in favor of tropical forest conservation is recommended.

Põder, Kaire, Kaie Kerem, and Triin Lauri. 2013. "Efficiency and Equity Within European Education Systems and School Choice Policy: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches." Journal of School Choice 7 (1):1-36.

Abstract: We seek out the good institutional features of the European choice policies that can enhance both equity and efficiency at the system level. For causality analysis we construct the typology of 28 European educational systems by using fuzzy-set analysis. We combine five independent variables to indicate institutional features of school choice policy: availability of choice, tracking, school variability, empowerment of parents, and financial incentive schemes supporting choice policy. Findings show that the most important complements producing efficiency are "no-choice" with "no-tracking" and "choice" together with "tracking" and "school variability." "No-choice" with "no-tracking" can also lead to more equity.

Portes, Alejandro, and Lori D. Smith. 2008. "Institutions and Development in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis." Studies in Comparative International Development 43 (2):101-28.

Abstract: We review the theoretical literature on the concept of institutions and its relationship to national development, propose a definition of the concept, and advance six hypotheses about institutional adequacy and contributions to national development. We then present results of a comparative empirical study of existing institutions in three Latin American countries and examine their organizational similarities and differences. Employing the qualitative comparative method (QCA) proposed by Ragin, we then test the six hypotheses. Results converge in showing the importance of meritocracy, immunity to corruption, absence of "islands of power,"; and proactivity in producing effective institutions. Findings strongly support Peter Evans' theory of developmental apparatuses.

Portes, Alejandro, and Lori D. Smith. 2010. "Institutions and National Development in Latin America: A Comparative Study." Socio-Economic Review 8 (4):585-621.

Abstract: We review the theoretical and empirical literature on the role of institutions in national development as a prelude to presenting a more rigorous and measurable definition of the concept and a methodology to study this relationship at the national and subnational levels. The existing research literature features conflicting definitions of the concept of 'institutions' and empirical tests based mostly on reputational indices, with countries as units of analysis. The present study's methodology is based on a set of five strategic organizations studied comparatively in five Latin American countries. These include key federal agencies, public administrative organizations and stock exchanges. Systematic analysis of results shows a pattern of differences between economically oriented institutions and those entrusted with providing basic services to the general population. Consistent differences in institutional quality also emerge across countries, despite similar levels of economic development. Implications of the results for theory and for methodological practices of future studies in this field are discussed.

Primc, Kaja, and Tomaž Cater. 2015. "Environmental Proactivity and Firm Performance: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis." Management Decision 53 (3):648-67.

Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore causal complexity in the relationship between environmental proactivity and firm performance. Using data collected from 27 Australian firms and controlling for the organizational life cycle, type of industry and external contingencies, the study empirically examines environmental proactivity in high-performing firms from polluting industries. Design/methodology/approach - The data were analyzed using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. Findings - In general, the results of the analysis imply that environmental proactivity is not always associated with high firm performance, and that environmental proactivity is not as important as the other causal conditions for high-performing firms in highly polluting industries. Research limitations/implications - The study addresses the relationship between environmental and firm performance more holistically by including a number of the firm's external and internal factors identified as important in past research. Second, it offers a new perspective on the relationship with its systematic comparative analysis of complex cases. Next, it identifies different combinations of conditions (paths) leading to a high firm performance and, finally, the core complementary model allows an exploration of which factors are essential and which are less important or even irrelevant to high-performing firms. Practical implications - Based on the findings, firms from highly polluting industries can determine in which circumstances, if any, the adoption of environmental proactivity will result in a positive firm performance. Originality/value - The study is valuable because it contains a rich set of measures of the firm's external and internal environment, thus allowing a more holistic examination of the relationship between environmental proactivity and firm performance.

Provan, Keith G., and Robin H. Lemaire. 2015. "Positional Embeddedness in a Community Source Software Development Project Network: The Importance of Relationship Intensity." R&D Management 45 (5):440-57.

Abstract: This study examines those job and relationship characteristics that explain the positional embeddedness of individuals working in a multi-organization project network. The analysis focuses differentially on three levels of relationship intensiveness: communication, coordination, and collaboration. Data were collected on the work relationships of 46 technical and administrative personnel involved in the Kuali Financial System, a community source software development project involving 12 organizations, 10 of which were colleges and universities, spread across the United States. Results were generally supportive of the hypotheses. Specifically, positional embeddedness was explained by characteristics of the project worker including the task performed, time spent on the task, and influence, as well as the ease of access to others. There was, however, little consistency in the explanatory power of these factors when comparing across levels of relationship intensity. Findings have implications for design of complex research and development projects that involve interactions across multiple organizations.

Pruitt, William R. 2015. "Testing Hagan and Rymond-Richmond's Collective Action Theory of Genocide." Global Crime 16 (1):1-18.

Abstract: John Hagan and Wenona Rymond-Richmond proposed a collective action theory of genocide in their book 'Darfur and the Crime of Genocide'. They then tested their theory using data from the Atrocities Documentation Survey conducted in Chad. The theory explains the Darfur genocide well and is supported by empirical data. Since there is little criminological theoretical work on genocide, the collective action theory was a great step forward. The next step in the process should be to see if the theory is generalisable to other instances of genocide. There may be much to learn in testing Hagan and Rymond-Richmond's theory for generalisability including identifying any modifications that may advance the current theoretical work on the criminology of genocide.

Raab, Jörg, Remco S. Mannak, and Bart Cambré. 2015. "Combining Structure, Governance, and Context: A Configurational Approach to Network Effectiveness." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 25 (2):479-511.

Abstract: This study explores the way in which network structure (network integration), network context (resource munificence and stability), and network governance mode relate to network effectiveness. The model by Provan and Milward (Provan, Keith G., and Brinton H. Milward. 1995. A preliminary theory of interorganizational network effectiveness: A comparative study of four community mental health systems. Administrative Science Quarterly 40 (1):1-33) on the effectiveness of designed and goal-directed interorganizational networks is extended and tested on the basis of 39 crime prevention networks (Safety Houses) in the Netherlands. Ten cases were subjected to in-depth analysis through documentation reviews, interviews, observations, and a survey among network participants. In the other 29 cases semistructured interviews were conducted with the network managers. The data for all 39 cases were analyzed with crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The results revealed two different configurations for network effectiveness. Effective networks are centrally integrated networks that have been in existence for at least 3 years (age) and which show a high degree of stability. In addition, they either have considerable resources at their disposal or they have been set up with a network administrative organization. The results confirm core insights from Provan and Milward's earlier study but also show that administrative resources can serve as a substitute for financial resources (and vice versa). The article concludes with suggestions for the further development of a configurational theory of network effectiveness.

Radaelli, Giovanni, Martina Dal Molin, Emanuele Lettieri, and Cristina Masella. 2014. "Promoting a New Practice in Hospitals: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Alternative Designs." International Journal of Public Administration 37 (6):376-87.

Abstract: Hospitals often fail to implement new practices due to an inability to promote their use among professionals. How effective promotion can be designed and organized remains unclear, however. The present work addresses this question by investigating the implementation of a cardiologic telesurveillance system in 12 hospitals. Despite an identical technology and unproblematic installation, only in five cases full implementation was achieved. Four promotion strategies - focused on a different combination of three aspects (planning, team involvement, and hero innovation) - were identified through case studies. Qualitative comparative analysis was then employed to identify three alternative strategies for effective promotion.
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Ragin, Charles C., Susan E. Mayer, and Kriss A. Drass. 1984. "Assessing Discrimination: A Boolean Approach." American Sociological Review 49 (2):221-34.

Abstract: Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, various forms of employment discrimination have been prohibited by law. The courts have enforced these laws vigorously, often requiring plaintiffs and defendants to present quantitative analyses of applicant and employee records as evidence. In fact, statistical analyses have become a regular feature of employment discrimination cases. Consequently, there has been an explosion of interest in the production of statistical assessments of discrimination, as more and more social scientists and statisticians have become involved as consultants and expert witnesses on both sides of discrimination cases. This paper discusses current practices in the production of statistical assessments of discrimination and suggests nonstatistical techniques that can be used to aid the interpretation of the results of statistical analyses. Statistical assessments (1) may contradict accumulated social scientific knowledge about decision making, in general, and discrimination, in particular, and (2) may also contradict the spirit of civil rights legislation concerning discrimination. These shortcomings motivate the introduction of a method of analysis that incorporates principles of Boolean algebra, an approach that allows holistic comparison of categories of similarly situated individuals.

Raïes, Karine, Hans Mühlbacher, and Marie-Laure Gavard-Perret. 2015. "Consumption Community Commitment: Newbies' and Longstanding Members' Brand Engagement and Loyalty." Journal of Business Research 68 (12):2634-44.

Abstract: The relationships among members of virtual brand-related communities may change depending on the length of their participation in the community. Consumers' commitment to the community is likely to influence the relationship between consumer engagement in the community and brand loyalty. Commitment can be affective, calculative, and normative. Knowledge concerning the impact of these dimensions on behavioral loyalty to a brand over membership time is lacking. This study examines the changing relationship between consumers' engagement in a consumption community, their kind of commitment to the community and their behavioral loyalty to a brand over membership time. Members of a French virtual community sharing photography interests participated in the sample. Configural analysis shows that strong engagement in community activities alone is neither sufficient nor necessary for brand loyal intentions. Combinations of engagement with various levels of affective, calculative and normative commitment to the community can cause high behavioral brand loyalty of community members. These combinations change with the length of membership in the community. Brand managers can use the results to fine-tune their communication to groups of community members with different combinations of engagement and commitment as drivers of brand loyalty.

Rauch, Andreas, Johannes S. Deker, and Arch G. Woodside. 2015. "Consuming Alone: Broadening Putnam's "Bowling Alone" Thesis." Psychology & Marketing 32 (9):967-76.

Abstract: Despite the popularity of Wi-Fi technologies and social networks, many residents in developed nations are more socially isolated now than a few decades ago. Applying fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, using a nationally representative sample in one developed nation this study investigates the relationship between social isolation and advice-giving and advice-seeking behaviors with regard to brands or products. This study raises the proposition that people who are socially isolated lack the opportunity to give and seek advice, and, thus, abstain from doing so. Additionally, the study proposes that lacking ability or motivation also represent causal conditions for isolation. The study also investigates consumer behavior outcomes of low advice-giving and advice-seeking behaviors; that is, pampering and status buying. The findings from an analysis of an omnibus annual survey of residents in one nation support the propositions that the study proposes from theory and are likely relevant for residents of most developed nations.

Raunio, Tapio. 2005. "Holding Governments Accountable in European Affairs: Explaining Cross-National Variation." Journal of Legislative Studies 11 (3-4):319-42.

Abstract: What factors explain cross-national variation in the level of parliamentary scrutiny of governments in European affairs? Using the fuzzy-set method developed by Charles C. Ragin, this article investigates the impact of five variables - the power of parliament independent of integration, public opinion on membership, party positions on integration, frequency of minority governments and political culture - identified in previous literature as relevant in explaining variation in the level of control. The strength of the parliament emerges as the only necessary cause in producing tighter scrutiny, while the combination of a powerful legislature and a more Euro-sceptical public opinion is sufficient in bringing about higher levels of control over the government. The final section summarises the main findings and concludes with a critical discussion on both the data and the validity of cross-national explanations, particularly in light of the recent enlargement of the Union.
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Redding, Kent, and Jocelyn S. Viterna. 1999. "Political Demands, Political Opportunities: Explaining the Differential Success of Left-Libertarian Parties." Social Forces 78 (2):491-510.

Abstract: Using qualitative comparative analysis, we examine why left-libertarian parties, associated with environmental and other "new social movements," have been relatively successful in some western democracies but not others. We conceptualize the parties as products of new citizen demands on the one hand, and of political opportunity structures, which govern party supply, on the other. We show that supply-side factors, such as a strong left and the existence of proportional representation, tend to work together to facilitate party innovation. A strong left appears more likely to downplay left-libertarian issues and push new-left activists to form separate parties, while proportional representation eases entry into the party system. Demand-side factors play a significant but lesser role. The theoretical and methodological strategies employed here have the potential to help political sociologists explain the variable success of other types of party innovators.
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Regoeczi, Wendy C., and Terance D. Miethe. 2003. "Taking on the Unknown." Homicide Studies 7 (3):211-34.

Abstract: Aside from noting the dramatic rise in their numbers, homicides with unknown victim/offender relationships have attracted little research attention. This study uses Qualitative Comparative Analysis and data from the Supplementary Homicide Reports for 1976 through 1998 to examine the nature of unknown relationship homicides and changes in their structure over time. The findings indicate that a large number of unknown relationship cases are contained within a few prevalent homicide situations while also occurring in a diverse array of less common situations. The situational context of unknown homicides exhibits considerable change over time, shifting from the killing of older White males with a variety of weapons to killings involving young Black males with guns. Although unknown and stranger homicides frequently share common structures, they demonstrate notable differences as well, suggesting that unknown relationships cannot automatically be assumed to involve strangers. Implications of the findings for policy and future research are discussed.

Ren, Shengce, Huei-Ting Tsai, and Andreas B. Eisingerich. 2016. "Case-Based Asymmetric Modeling of Firms with High versus Low Outcomes in Implementing Changes in Direction." Journal of Business Research 69 (2):500-7.

Abstract: The study builds on and extends prior work on the search scope and innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises. Specifically, this study explores combinational causes leading to high innovation performance for emerging market firms using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). By calibrating the data, constructing the truth table and producing the fsQCA results on the data of small and medium-sized enterprises from China, this study highlights the combination of several causes that the innovation performance of firms depends on. The findings of this study reveal that the strong presence of R&D capability and firm size is necessary, while upward search scope is a sufficient condition for strong innovation performance. The article closes with implications for theory and practice and avenues for future work.

Rey-Martí, Andrea, Ana Tur Porcar, and Alicia Mas-Tur. 2015. "Linking Female Entrepreneurs' Motivation to Business Survival." Journal of Business Research 68 (4):810-4.

Abstract: Analysis of entrepreneurs' motives in the framework of organizational behavior theory is a popular research area regarding female entrepreneurship. This study analyzes women entrepreneurs' motives (propensity for risk, finding a work-life balance, desire to develop business skills, need to seek self-employment, and desire to earn more than in paid employment) to achieve survival of their businesses through crisp set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA). Analysis yields the following results: 1) women whose motive is to pursuit a better work-life balance are less likely to success; and 2) women whose motive is risk-taking are more likely to success.

Reynaert, Vicky. 2011. "Explaining EU Aid Allocation in the Mediterranean: A Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Mediterranean Politics 16 (3):405-26.

Abstract: This article examines the determinants of aid allocation by the European Union to its southern neighbours within the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and the European Neighbourhood Policy. Starting from the observation that in the two periods 2002-06 and 2007-10 the European Commission committed a considerably larger amount of aid per capita to Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia than to Algeria, Egypt and Syria, four models regarding aid allocation are identified from the literature and EU documents: donor interest, recipient need, good governance and economic reforms. Subsequently, the hypotheses of these models are tested using a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. The article concludes that the economic reforms model proves to have the most explanatory value. The EU's aid policy in the Mediterranean has a long-term objective - the promotion of market-based reforms. In addition, a high score for control of corruption is identified as a sufficient condition for receiving a large amount of funding.

Rihoux, Benoît. 2006. "Governmental Participation and the organizational Adaptation of Green Parties: On Access, Slack, Overload and Distress." European Journal of Political Research 45 (S1):69-98.

Abstract: This article explores the reciprocal links between the organizational transformation of Western European Green parties and their governmental experience. On the one hand, a series of hypotheses with regards to the possible link between prior organizational adaptation and eventual access to governmental participation are examined. On the other, the opposite question is addressed: that of the potential impact of governmental participation - and, more recently, exit from government - on further organizational adaptation. Following both a qualitative and a qualitative comparative (QCA) analysis, one ultimately identifies a link between prior organizational adaptation and eventual access to government, but a much more indirect and contrasted link between governmental participation (and exit from government) and further organizational adaptation.
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Rivard, Suzanne, and Liette Lapointe. 2012. "Information Technology Implementers' Responses to User Resistance: Nature and Effects " MIS Quarterly 36 (3):897-920.

Abstract: User resistance has long been acknowledged as a critical issue during information technology implementation. Resistance can be functional when it signals the existence of problems with the IT or with its effects; it will be dysfunctional when it leads to organizational disruption. Notwithstanding the nature of resistance, the implementers - business managers, functional managers, or IT professionals - have to address it. Although the literature recognizes the importance of user resistance, it has paid little attention to implementers' responses - and their effect - when resistance occurs. Our study focuses on this phenomenon, and addresses two questions: What are implementers' responses to user resistance? What are the effects of these responses on user resistance? To answer these questions, we conducted a case survey, which combines the richness of case studies with the benefits of analyzing large quantities of data. Our case database includes 89 cases with a total of 137 episodes of resistance. In response to our first research question, we propose a taxonomy that includes four categories of implementers' responses to user resistance: inaction, acknowledgment, rectification, and dissuasion. To answer our second question, we adopted a set theoretic analysis approach, which we enriched with content analysis of the cases. Based on these analyses, we offer a theoretical explanation of how implementers' responses may affect the antecedents that earlier research found to be associated with user resistance behaviors.

Roberts, Ros, Richard Gott, and Judith Glaesser. 2010. "Students' Approaches to Open-Ended Science Investigation: The Importance of Substantive and Procedural Understanding." Research Papers in Education 25 (4):377-407.

Abstract: This paper investigates the respective roles of substantive and procedural understanding with regard to students' ability to carry out an open-ended science investigation. The research is a case study centred on an intervention in which undergraduate initial teacher training students are taught the basic building blocks of procedural understanding. They are then put in the position of solving a practical open?ended investigation. We report on the detail of their approaches and draw on recent papers in which the data are subjected to analysis using Qualitative Comparative Analysis techniques. We conclude that having been taught about evidence has contributed to the successful performance of the investigation; that students' greatest improvement was in their understanding of ideas associated with datasets; and that students were able to apply the ideas to work more iteratively in response to data in the investigation. We consider the possible curriculum implications of this exploratory work.

Robinson, Brian E., Margaret B. Holland, and Lisa Naughton-Treves. 2014. "Does Secure Land Tenure Save Forests? A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Land Tenure and Tropical Deforestation." Global Environmental Change 29 (0):281-93.

Abstract: Deforestation and degradation are tied to a complex array of socioeconomic and political factors. Many assume that among the most important of these are the particular bundles of rights regulating who can benefit from land (tenure form) and the overall assurance that those rights will be upheld (tenure security). This paper reviews literature that connects forest outcomes and land tenure to better understand broad interactions between tenure form, security and forest change. Papers from economic theory suggest tenure is embedded in a broader socioeconomic context, with the potential for either a positive or negative conservation impact on forested land. Empirically, we find 36 publications that link land cover change to tenure conditions while also controlling for other plausibly confounding variables. Publications often investigate more than one site and more than one form of tenure, so from these we derive 118 cases linking forest change with a specific tenure form in a particular location. From these cases, we find evidence that protected areas are associated with positive forest outcomes and that land tenure security is associated with less deforestation, regardless of the form of tenure. We conclude with a call for more robust identification of this relationship in future research, as well as set of recommendations for policymakers, particularly as forest carbon incentive programs such as REDD integrate further into national policies.

Roig-Tierno, Norat, Joaquín Alcázar, and Samuel Ribeiro-Navarrete. 2015. "Use of Infrastructures to Support Innovative Entrepreneurship and Business Growth." Journal of Business Research 68 (11):2290-4.

Abstract: This research examines the relationship between growth and the use of support infrastructures for innovative entrepreneurship. The study considers three types of support infrastructure: incubators, technology centers, and universities. Employing crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA), the study tests the existence of such relationships using empirical data from a sample (n = 107) of young innovative companies. Results show that combining the use of incubators, technology centers, and universities can positively affect young innovate companies' growth.

Romme, A. Georges L. 1995. "Self-Organizing Processes in Top Management Teams: A Boolean Comparative Approach." Journal of Business Research 34 (1):11-34.

Abstract: Studies of top management are scattered over a number of separate research traditions. In this study a model of self-organizing processes in top management teams is developed that may stimulate the dialogue between these separate research traditions. This model builds on several theoretical ideas from the field of self-organizing systems, and starts from the logic of process theory (instead of variance theory). The second contribution of this study is describing Boolean comparison as a rigorous method for testing process theories on the basis of qualitative evidence from case studies. In this respect, Boolean comparison may compensate for some of the weaknesses of the conventional approach to comparative case studies by systematically addressing a larger number of cases without forsaking complexity too much. In addition, Boolean comparison systematically structures the kind of dialogue between theory and evidence typically found in comparative case study research. The third contribution is exploring the opportunities and limits of Boolean comparison in the context of an empirical study of self-organizing processes in top management teams, based on the model described earlier. This application of the Boolean method suggests it is an effective analytical technique, as long as it not used mechanically but as an aid to interpretive analysis.

Roscigno, Vincent J., and Randy Hodson. 2004. "The Organizational and Social Foundations of Worker Resistance." American Sociological Review 69 (1):14-39.

Abstract: The study of worker resistance has tended to focus either on organizational attributes that may alter actors' capacity to respond or on influential shop-floor social relations. This divide, partially driven by analytical and methodological preference, is also a function of different theoretical traditions. In this article, we suggest that organizational attributes and interpersonal relations in the workplace, in concert with union presence and collective action history, may be simultaneously but also conditionally meaningful for workers and their potential resistance strategies. Findings, derived from analyses of unique data on 82 workplace ethnographies and that merge Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) techniques and more conventional quantitative methods, largely support these expectations. Most notably, the impact of workplace organization and even union presence on worker resistance varies depending on social relations on the shop floor Where there is union presence and significant interpersonal conflict with supervisors, the likelihood of collective resistance in the form of strike action is heightened. This pattern also holds for certain more individualized forms of worker resistance (i.e., social sabotage, work avoidance, and absenteeism). More central to individual resistance, however, are workplace contexts characterized by poor organization and a lack of collective action legacy. We conclude by discussing the implications of our results for future analyses of workplace social relations, workplace structure, and collective and individual resistance-oriented actions.

Rubenzer, Trevor. 2008. "Ethnic Minority Interest Group Attributes and U.S. Foreign Policy Influence: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Foreign Policy Analysis 4 (2):169-85.

Abstract: To what extent are ethnic identity groups able to influence U.S. foreign policy toward their ancestral homelands? Existing research has resulted in the enumeration of an extensive list of criteria thought to condition ethnic minority influence. In spite of significant progress, however, the literature lacks of systematic test of any of these criteria. The result is a literature that cumulates largely though the addition of new criteria, rather than the reevaluation of existing factors. The current study represents an attempt to develop a test of existing criteria though the application of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). Specifically, the study uses QCA to examine six of the most widely cited criteria found in the literature. Results indicate that, of the six criteria, only organizational strength and level of political activity are necessary conditions for successful influence. No individual factors are sufficient causes of influence.

Rudel, Tom, and Jill Roper. 1996. "Regional Patterns and Historical Trends in Tropical Deforestation, 1976-1990: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Ambio 25 (3):160-6.

Abstract: Reports of tropical deforestation indicate that it occurs in diverse circumstances which obscure underlying patterns of causation. Cross-national statistical analyses do not reveal these patterns because they can not investigate how causal factors interact with each other in specific contexts. Under these circumstances a qualitative comparative study of tropical deforestation might be useful. Drawing on qualitative sources, we classify countries with tropical forests on a series of attributes. Using Boolean algebra, we look for cross-national similarities in processes of deforestation, creating sets of countries with similar processes. This analysis points to the importance of interior locations in Africa and South America for forest preservation, suggests that the retreat of small, remnant forests into rugged topography has not slowed deforestation, and indicates that stronger forest-protection policies may have reduced deforestation. A regional analysis finds distinct patterns of tropical deforestation in Asia, East Africa, West Africa, Central America/Caribbean, and South America. The West African and Central American patterns are quite similar. The policy implications of these findings are briefly considered.

Russi, Loris, Gabriele Siegert, Matthias A. Gerth, and Isabelle Krebs. 2014. "The Relationship of Competition and Financial Commitment Revisited: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis in European Newspaper Markets." Journal of Media Economics 27 (2):60-78.

Abstract: Research generally supported a positive effect of competition intensity on financial commitment into news production within U.S. markets. The authors test this assumption across European newspaper markets by applying fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis. Although oligopolistic too, European newspaper markets reveal a somewhat different pattern. The market condition "high number of competitors" in combination with "high competition intensity" is a sufficient condition for financial commitment across the different markets in this study.
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Russo, Ivan, Ilenia Confente, David M. Gligor, and Chad W. Autry. 2016. "To be or not to be (loyal): Is there a Recipe for Customer Loyalty in the B2B Context?" Journal of Business Research 69 (2):888-96.

Abstract: The article investigates how firms can achieve high levels of customer loyalty under different configurations of perceived switching costs, returns management, customer value, and customer satisfaction. In order to better explain the sources of customer loyalty within the B2B context, researchers have already introduced various antecedents and developed several models, however past studies concentrated exclusively on the main 'net effects' of these antecedents. Because of the complex reality in which the phenomena of interest manifests itself, complexity theory tenets can provide a more accurate understanding of what generates customer loyalty. Applying this theory, the current article seeks to determine all the possible "recipes" that build strong customer loyalty in the B2B context. To address this research question the study employed qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) which assumes that the influence of attributes on a specific outcome (customer loyalty in a B2B context) depends on how the attributes are combined. Future research can consider other possible combinations and explore how the impact of these antecedents on customer loyalty changes when other variables are considered.

Ryan, Matt, and Graham Smith. 2012. "Towards a Comparative Analysis of Democratic Innovations. Lessons from a small-N fsQCA of Participatory Budgeting." Revista Internacional de Sociología 70 (S2):89-120.

Abstract: While there has been a proliferation of academic interest in 'democratic innovations', most empirical analysis tends to rely on single case studies. Very little attention has been given to the comparative analysis of innovations, in particular the conditions under which they emerge and are sustained. Recent studies of participatory budgeting (PB) have begun to utilise cross-case analysis in an attempt to explain divergent outcomes. This paper argues that the comparative analysis of democratic innovations could be enhanced significantly through the application of the relatively novel technique of fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). A small- N study of PBs is offered to identify the potential (and pitfalls) of using fsQCA to evaluate the conditions under which such an innovation is institutionalised effectively.

Sager, Fritz. 2004. "Institutions Métropolitaines et Coordination des Politiques Publiques: Une AQQC des Arrangements Politico-Administratifs d'Articulation entre Urbanisme et Transports en Europe." Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée 11 (1):67-84.

Abstract: Cet article analyse l'impact de différents cadres institutionnels métropolitains sur la qualité des processus de négociation politique dans la prise de décision. La recherche est centrée sur la coordination des politiques d'aménagement du territoire et des transports, car le problème de la désurbanisation est avant tout lié à l'augmentation de la mobilité et des besoins en termes d'espace. Deux types idéaux d'institutions métropolitaines sont conceptualisés: le modèle néoprogressiste (production directe de services publics par des administrations centralisées et bureaucratisées au sein de municipalités consolidées) et le modèle des choix collectifs (administration décentralisée, non spécialisée et politiquement dépendante, dans des zones urbaines fragmentées). Les résultats d'une AQQC de 17 cas de décisions dans des zones urbaines d'Europe occidentale aboutissent à soutenir le modèle néoprogressiste, et non celui des choix collectifs.

Sager, Fritz. 2004. "Metropolitan Institutions and Policy Coordination: The Integration of Land Use and Transport Policies in Swiss Urban Areas." Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions 18 (2):227-56.

Abstract: The article addresses the question of how different metropolitan institutional settings affect the quality of political negotiation processes and their subsequent policy decisions. Starting from the theoretical controversy of the two metropolitan reform traditions, two opposing ideal types of metropolitan government institutions are conceptualized: on the one hand the public choice model that stands for a decentralized, nonprofessional, and politically dependent administration in fragmented urban areas, and on the other hand the neoprogressive model that stands for direct public service production by centralized and professionalized bureaucracies within consolidated municipalities. A qualitative comparative analysis of nine decision cases in four Swiss urban areas uncovers three main results: voluntary, positive, and policy-driven coordination as well as well coordinated policy solutions are found in centralized rather than decentralized institutional settings, in fragmented rather than consolidated metropolitan areas, and in project structures with a strict separation of the political sphere of negotiating from the technical sphere rather than in negotiations without such clear distinction. However, it is only under very specific institutional conditions that these well-coordinated solutions are also being implemented. The findings must be put into perspective in two respects. On the one hand, the positive effect of fragmentation on the quality of deliberation is supposedly unique to Switzerland due to its very strong federalism. On the other hand, the importance of bureaucratic autonomy is probably due to Switzerland's marked tradition of a weak state. The results from the nine test cases in general, however, substantiate the hypotheses derived from the neoprogressive model of metropolitan government institutions rather than the public choice model.

Sager, Fritz. 2006. "Policy Coordination in the European Metropolis: A Meta-Analysis." West European Politics 29 (3):433-60.

Abstract: A major concern of the ongoing metropolitan debate is the growing need for policy coordination in urban areas. By means of a meta-analysis of 17 case studies regarding the integration of urban transport and land use policies in Western Europe, the present article focuses on the institutional conditions for policy coordination in metropolitan areas. For this purpose, hypotheses are derived from the two classic schools of the metropolitan debate: on the one hand the progressive model that stands for direct public service production by centralised and professionalised bureaucracies within consolidated municipalities, and on the other hand the public choice model that stands for a decentralised, non-professional, and politically dependent administration in fragmented urban areas. The results of a Qualitative Comparative Analysis show that well coordinated policy decisions are only implemented in institutional settings that correspond with the progressive model, thus promoting this model rather than the public choice model.

Sager, Fritz. 2008. "Institutionelle Bedingungen kollektiver Handlungsfähigkeit im urbanen Raum: Eine QCA von siebzehn europäischen Entscheidungsfällen." Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft 2 (1):44-69.

Abstract: Der vorliegende Aufsatz fragt nach den institutionellen Bedingungen für die Bewältigung von Interdependenzproblemen im urbanen Raum. Als Messgrösse für kollektive Handlungsfähigkeit wird die Qualität von Politikkoordination im Prozess und im Entscheidungsergebnis gewählt. Für die empirische Untersuchung werden zwei einander entgegen gesetzte verwaltungswissenschaftliche Modelle metropolitaner Institutionen hergeleitet und Hypothesen formuliert: Einerseits steht das neoprogressive Modell für Zentralisierung, konsolidierte Raumstrukturen sowie eine professionelle und politisch unabhängige Verwaltung. Andererseits steht das Public Choice-Modell für Dezentralisierung, fragmentierte Raumstrukturen sowie eine unprofessionelle und politisch abhängige Verwaltung. Die Resultate des Vergleichs von siebzehn Fallstudien zu raumwirksamen Entscheidungsprozessen in westeuropäischen Stadträumen mithilfe Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) weisen die neoprogressiven Postulate als leistungsfähiger für Politikkoordination aus als das Public Choice-Modell.

Sager, Fritz. 2010. "Institutional Preconditions for the Collective Capacity to Act in Urban Areas: A QCA of Seventeen European Case Studies." Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft 4 (S):55-77.

Abstract: The present article questions the institutional preconditions for solving problems of interdependency in urban areas. Policy coordination in terms of processes as well as outcomes serves as an indicator for the collective capacity to act. Hypotheses are derived from two institutionalist schools: first, from the neoprogressive model that stands for direct public service provision by centralized and professionalised bureaucracies within consolidated municipalities, and second, from the public choice model that represents a decentralized, non-professional, and politically dependent administration in fragmented urban areas. The results of the comparison of seventeen case studies regarding the integration of urban transport and land use policies in Western European urban areas employing Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) show that well co-ordinated policy decisions are only implemented in institutional settings that largely correspond to the neoprogressive model.
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Sager, Fritz, and Céline Andereggen. 2012. "Dealing With Complex Causality in Realist Synthesis." American Journal of Evaluation 33 (1):60-78.

Abstract: In this article, the authors state two arguments: first, that the four categories of context, politics, polity, and policy make an adequate framework for systematic review being both exhaustive and parsimonious; second, that the method of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is an appropriate methodical approach for gaining realistic results that are useful for political practice. Instead of providing unsatisfactory monocausal explanations, the approach identifies different combinations of conditions leading to a given outcome. The authors illustrate their points with a two-step multi-value QCA (mvQCA) of 17 transport policy cases in Switzerland.
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Sager, Fritz, and Yvan Rielle. 2013. "Sorting through the Garbage Can: Under what Conditions do Governments Adopt Policy Programs?" Policy Sciences 46 (1):1-21.

Abstract: The paper aims at explaining the adoption of policy programs. We use the garbage can model of organizational choice as our theoretical framework and complement it with the institutional setting of administrative decision-making in order to understand the complex causation of policy program adoption. Institutions distribute decision power by rules and routines and coin actor identities and their interpretations of situations. We therefore expect institutions to play a role when a policy window opens. We explore the configurative explanations for program adoption in a systematic comparison of the adoption of new alcohol policy programs in the Swiss cantons employing Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The most important conditions are the organizational elements of the administrative structure decisive for the coupling of the streams. The results imply that classic bureaucratic structures are better suited to put policies into practice than limited government.

Samford, Steven. 2010. "Averting "Disruption and Reversal": Reassessing the Logic of Rapid Trade Reform in Latin America." Politics & Society 38 (3):373-407.

Abstract: This study revisits the debate on trade reform in Latin America, focusing specifically on what combinations of conditions were necessary and sufficient for very rapid trade liberalization. It departs significantly from two types of studies that have been previously used to examine Latin American trade reform: (1) those using large samples and linear statistics to test the mean effects of variables on levels of trade protection and (2) those isolating necessary conditions for rapid reform but using a small number of case studies. Using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis and short case studies, the study considers trade policy in sixty-one administrations. It finds that a key motivating factor for rapid trade opening is potential resistance from protected industry; it further identifies several other important enabling conditions, such as hyperinflation, devaluation, and an unconstrained executive. In combination, these enabling conditions are sufficient to account for a high percentage of rapid reform episodes.
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Savage, Scott V., and Ryan Seebruck. 2015. "The Road to the Top: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Mobility in the Elite Labor Market of College Basketball Coaching." Sociological Focus 48 (3):208-27.

Abstract: We examine how career paths, job performance, affiliation ties, and race combine to affect who secures top jobs in an elite labor market. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, we show that examining these traits in conjunction, rather than in isolation, reveals novel insights into how one reaches the top of an occupation. Specifically, we document how factors coalesce in various ways to propel a coach to or from the top of NCAA Division I basketball. Results are particularly informative regarding race and social ties, as the importance of these conditions depend on signs of success. These findings illustrate the importance of context and perception in occupational advancement and suggest the analytic benefit of viewing job applicants as attribute clusters when examining advancement at the highest levels of an occupation.

Luis Leandro Schenoni. 2014. "The Brazilian Rise and the Elusive South American Balance" Estudos Internacionais 2 (2):215-231.

Abstract: Within the last fifty years, the Brazilian share of South American power has increased from one-third to one-half of the overall material capabilities in the region. Such a significant change in the regional power structure cannot have gone unnoticed by Brazil's neighbors. The article addresses the main question related to South American unipolarity (1985–2014): Why have most countries in the region not implemented any consistent balancing or bandwagoning strategies vis-à-vis Brazil? Drawing on neoclassical realism, the article proposes that certain domestic variables – government instability, limited party-system institutionalization, and powerful presidents – have diverted the attention of political elites and foreign policy executives from the challenges generated by a rising Brazil. Crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis is used to test this hypothesis and other, alternative explanations for the regional imbalance.

Sawyer, Steve, Robert Schrier, Jane Fedorowicz, Martin Dias, Christine Williams, and Mike Tyworth. 2013. "U.S. Public Safety Networks: Architectural Patterns and Performance." Information Polity 18 (2):139-56.

Abstract: Through this paper we advance insights regarding common patterns among information and communication technology (ICT) architectures (ICTA) found in United States' public safety networks (PSNs). A PSN is an inter-organizational collaboration enabled by ICT to support information sharing and interoperability needs of police and associated public safety organizations. Substantial evidence makes clear the information systems designed and used by PSNs are typically expensive and complex, support multiple public agencies from different organs of government and span different political and geographic boundaries. Better understanding of PSN ICTA patterns could lead to improved designs and possibly improved performance of these (and perhaps other forms of) multi-agency technology-enabled collaborations. Empirical data from 61 operational PSNs provides the basis for this work. These data were analyzed using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), an approach ideally suited for detailed analyses across smaller data sets that allows us to assess inter-dependence among variables. Results show that (1) functionally similar configuration patterns of ICTA exist among PSNs and (2) several common architectural patterns are associated with higher levels of PSN performance, but these include a large number of unique successful arrangements.

Schensul, Jean, Devyani Chandran, S. Singh, Marlene Berg, Sharad Singh, and Kamla Gupta. 2010. "The Use of Qualitative Comparative Analysis for Critical Event Research in Alcohol and HIV in Mumbai, India." AIDS and Behavior 14 (S1):113-25.

Abstract: In this paper we use Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) in critical event analysis to identify under what conditions alcohol is necessary in contributing to unprotected sex. The paper is based on a set of in-depth interviews with 84 men aged 18 = 29 from three typical low income communities in Mumbai who reported using alcohol and having sex with at least one nonspousal partner once or more in the 30 days prior to the interview. The interviews included narratives of critical events defined as recent (past 30-60 day) events involving sexual behavior with or without alcohol. The paper identifies themes related to alcohol, sexuality and condom use, uses QCA to identify and explain configurations leading to protected and unprotected sex, and explains the differences. The analysis shows that alcohol alone is not sufficient to explain any cases involving unprotected sex but alcohol in combination with partner type and contextual factors does explain unprotected sex for subsets of married and unmarried men.

Schimmelfennig, Frank, Berthold Rittberger, Alexander Bürgin, and Guido Schwellnus. 2006. "Conditions for EU Constitutionalization: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Journal of European Public Policy 13:1168-89.

Abstract: This article probes the conditions conducive to the constitutionalization of the European Union: under what conditions have the powers of the European Parliament been extended and the institutionalization of human rights progressed? Based on the assumption that the constitutionalization of the EU is best understood as the outcome of strategic action in a community environment, we argue that progress in constitutionalization depends on the salience of the EU's democracy deficit, the coherence of demands for constitutionalization with extant EU or external norms, and the publicity of negotiations and deliberations. We test this constitutionalization hypothesis in a qualitative comparative analysis offering a systematic diachronic and synchronic comparison of sixty-six constitutional decisions between 1951 and 2004 across different areas of parliamentary competence and human rights issues. The findings corroborate the constitutionalization hypothesis and suggest that salience and, more recently, coherence are the most relevant conditions of EU constitutionalization.

Schlager, Edella, and Tanya Heikkila. 2009. "Resolving Water Conflicts: A Comparative Analysis of Interstate River Compacts." Policy Studies Journal 37 (3):367-92.

Abstract: This paper examines compacts used by U.S. western states to engage in shared governance of interstate rivers. Compacts are viewed as inflexible, rigid governance structures incapable of responding to changing environmental and institutional settings because of the use of unanimity rules and the inability to directly regulate water users. Using data from a study of 14 western interstate river compacts we examine this claim. In particular, we explore the response of compacts to water conflicts. We find that members of compacts, closely related water agencies, and compact governments are capable of responding to conflicts. To better understand this finding, we identify the conditions under which compacts are likely to address conflicts, as well as the types of conflict solutions compact governments adopted.

Schneider, Carsten Q., and Kristin Makszin. 2014. "Forms of Welfare Capitalism and Education-Based Participatory Inequality." Socio-Economic Review 12 (2):437-62.

Abstract: Scholars studying democracy are just beginning to investigate the specifically political consequences of rising socio-economic inequalities. This paper analyses whether the degree of political inequality between social groups is shaped by features of the welfare capitalist system. Specifically, we hypothesize that more labour protection and social support decrease participatory inequality via more evenly distributed resources and engagement between high- and low educated citizens. Our regression analyses combining micro- and macro-level data from 37 capitalist democracies over the past 20 years provide evidence that some protective and supportive elements of welfare capitalism reduce education-based participatory inequality. Our fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis identifies three functionally equivalent types of welfare capitalism that all produce low participatory inequality via increased protection, support or both. Finally, we empirically demonstrate that the mechanisms behind this link are, indeed, a more equal distribution of resources and engagement across low- and high educated citizens.
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Schneider, Martin R., Conrad Schulze-Bentrop, and Mihai Paunescu. 2010. "Mapping the Institutional Capital of High-Tech Firms: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis of Capitalist Variety and Export Performance." Journal of International Business Studies 41 (2):246-66.

Abstract: We examine how institutional configurations, not single institutions, provide companies with institutional capital. Building on the varieties-of-capitalism approach, it is argued that competitive advantage in high-tech industries with radical innovation may be supported by combinations of certain institutional conditions: lax employment protection, weak collective bargaining coverage, extensive university training, little occupational training, and a large stock market. Furthermore, multinational enterprises engage in "institutional arbitrage": they allocate their activities so as to benefit from available institutional capital. These hypotheses are tested on country-level data for 19 OECD economies in the period 1990 to 2003. A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis yields several interesting findings. A high share of university graduates and a large stock market are complementary institutions leading to strong export performance in high-tech. Employment protection is neither conducive nor harmful to export performance in high-tech. A high volume of cross-border mergers and acquisitions, as a form of institutional arbitrage leading to knowledge flows, acts as a functional equivalent to institutions that support knowledge production in the home economy. Implications of these findings for theory, policy, and the analysis of firm-level behavior are developed.
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Schneider, Peter, and Dieter Sadowski. 2010. "The Impact of New Public Management Instruments on PhD Education." Higher Education 59 (5):543-65.

Abstract: New public governance emphasises less state, more market and more hierarchy as the cornerstones for effective steering of higher education institutions. Based on an explorative analysis of qualitative and quantitative data of fourteen German and European economics departments, we investigate the steering effects of six new public management instruments in the years 2001 and 2002 on subsequent placement success of PhD graduates. Using crisp set Qualitative Comparative Analysis to analyse the data, our results deliver strong support for the positive effects of competition for resources and the varying effects of hierarchy on PhD education. Governance of successful departments is characterised by two solutions: transparency over academic achievements as one single success factor in each solution or a combination of additional funding based on national competitive performance with either no public policy regulations for departments or no university regulations for departments. Governance of unsuccessful departments is characterised by one solution: university regulations for departments or a combination of no additional funding based on national competitive performance and no transparency over academic achievements. Our results strengthen the strong impact of selected competitive mechanisms as an effective governance instrument and the partially detrimental effects of state regulations. University regulations turn out to be successful if they increase transparency over academic achievements by faculty members. Success is unlikely if those rules intervene into PhD education.
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Schoon, Eric W. 2014. "The Asymmetry of Legitimacy: Analyzing the Legitimation of Violence in 30 Cases of Insurgent Revolution." Social Forces 93 (2):779-801.

Abstract: This article demonstrates that there is a causal asymmetry between legitimate and illegitimate violence in civil conflict, and advocates turning analytic attention to illegitimacy. Fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis is used to assess patterns in the conditions for civilians' perceptions that state-sanctioned violence was legitimate versus illegitimate in 30 cases of insurgent revolution that occurred between 1978 and 2008. Findings show no substantive patterns in the conditions for legitimacy, but reveal three causal pathways to illegitimacy that transcend regional and national boundaries. Comparative historical analysis of these pathways details general causal mechanisms that result in perceptions that state-sanctioned violence is illegitimate. This research shows that while the conditions for legitimacy vary by case, the conditions for illegitimacy transcend regional contexts, representing a more global phenomenon.

Schuhmacher, Monika C., Sergej von Janda, and Arch Woodside. 2013. "Configural Theory of Why People Shop for Clothes: Personal-Attribute Explanations of Four Stalwart Segments." Journal of Global Fashion Marketing 5 (1):1-25.

Abstract: The study here applies fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to offer configurations that are sufficient to identify "Clotheshorses", "Clothesaholics", "Clothesgourmands" and "Clothesnegators". In contrast to prior literature investigating only clothes shopping frequency, we find these four clothes shopper types are different with regard to the perceived "importance of dressing well". The findings demonstrate the existence of these four stalwart segments.

Schweizer, Thomas. 1996. "Actor and Event orderings across Time: Lattice Representation and Boolean Analysis of the Political Disputes in Chen Village, China." Social Networks 18 (3):247-66.

Abstract: So far qualitative data on political disputes in a Chinese community, 1950-1980, have been presented in a narrative historical account (Chan, Madsen and Unger, 1984, Chen Village. The Recent History of a Peasant Community in Mao's China, University of California Press) and analyzed with statistical network tools (Schweizer, 1991, Journal of Quantitative Anthropology, 3, 19-44). In this paper, lattice and Boolean analyses are applied as new procedures. First, lattice analysis is used to explore the dual order structure among actors and events in different periods. This gives a systematic understanding of the power struggle across time. Second, Boolean algebra is applied to specify and test explanatory hypotheses trying to account for the success or failure of actors in the disputes. In this application Boolean analysis detects multivariate causal order patterns in a small and qualitative data set.

Scouvart, M., R. T. Adams, M. Caldas, V. Dale, B. Mertens, V. Nedelec, P. Pacheco, B. Rihoux, and E. F. Lambin. 2007. "Causes of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Journal of Land Use Science 2 (4):257-82.

Abstract: We used a configurational comparative approach, the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), to study multiple causal interactions characterizing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Our data set is based on seven local case studies at three time periods. Results reveal a limited number of pathways describing the articulation of causes of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon under different contexts. Roads are often combined with biophysical conditions and the occurrence of extractive activities in the explanation of deforestation. This study reached conclusions via a reproducible and formal procedure that was applied at a regional scale while accounting for the geographic diversity of land-use trajectories.

Seate, Anita Atwell, Nicholas Joyce, Jake Harwood, and Analisa Arroyo. 2015. "Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Positive Intergroup Contact: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approach to Understanding Intergroup Attitudes." Communication Quarterly 63 (2):135-55.

Abstract: Intergroup contact theory has suggested that interpersonal, and even imagined, communication between members of different social groups is one of the most effective ways to promote positive intergroup attitudes. Researchers have examined various elements and conditions of the communication that may be related to the impact of intergroup contact. However, due to methodological limitations, the extent to which these conditions are necessary or sufficient to produce positive intergroup outcomes has been unclear. We used fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA) to analyze how several communicative and psychological variables might be necessary and/or sufficient to produce positive intergroup attitudes toward "illegal" immigrants within an imagined intergroup contact experience. Findings suggest that certain combinations of conditions for contact are sufficient for producing positive attitudes toward social group members but that there are no necessary causes. The discussion emphasizes the implications for intergroup contact and the utility of fs/QCA.

Sebastian, Rodney, and Ashvin Parameswaran. 2007. "Conversion and the Family: Chinese Hare Krishnas." Journal of Contemporary Religion 22 (3):341-59.

Abstract: The multi-cultural and multi-religious context of the globalised world often results in unlikely interactions between the triad of people, cultures, and religion. The result may be that people embrace divergent systems of beliefs. This article explores the dynamics of such interaction within the private domain of the family, when ethnic Chinese adopt an alien faith, that of the Hare Krishna. Four typologies of interactions between convert and family members are proposed, ranging from the most volatile to the most harmonious. These are categorised as contentious, neutral, accommodative, and supportive. The combinations of factors that lead to each type of interaction, such as family-convert relationship, religious identity of family member, residence of the convert, family members' perception of the Hare Krishna, and the extent of external practices adopted by the converts, are discussed. In particular, qualitative comparative analysis is applied to investigate how these variables combine to lead to each typology.

Sedelmeier, Ulrich. 2014. "Anchoring Democracy from Above? The European Union and Democratic Backsliding in Hungary and Romania after Accession." Journal of Common Market Studies 52 (1):105-21.

Abstract: This article analyzes the European Union's reactions to breaches of liberal democratic practices in Hungary and Romania during 2012-13 in order to assess its capacity to lock in democracy in the Member States. The article finds that a combination of partisan politics and weak normative consensus thwarted the EU's ability to use the sanctioning mechanism of Article 7. The effectiveness of alternative instruments that EU institutions used - social pressure, infringement procedures and issue linkage - varied across issues and countries. In Hungary, changes to illiberal practices generally remained limited, but differences in the EU's material leverage explain cross-issue variation. The EU's relative success in Romania suggests that it is not necessarily powerless against democratic backsliding. It might require a demanding constellation of favourable conditions for both social and material pressure, but there are grounds for a more optimistic interpretation that material leverage might be unnecessary if the conditions for social pressure are favourable.

Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin, and Timo Fleckenstein. 2009. "The Political Economy of Occupational Family Policies: Comparing Workplaces in Britain and Germany." British Journal of Industrial Relations 47 (4):741-64.

Abstract: With a shift in the political debate to more market-driven social policy approaches during the past decade, politicians in a number of European countries have argued that employers should take on greater responsibilities in the provision of social policy. But why should employers get involved? After reviewing the relevant literature on firm-level social policy, we analyse the conditions and causal pathways that lead to their provision. Our findings show that (i) the skill structure and level of the workforce are important conditions for firm-level engagement; (ii) employers have usually been the 'protagonists'; (iii) the role of unions has been more limited - in Germany they can largely be characterized as 'consenters', whereas in Britain, their impact is negligible; (iv) in accordance with the specific systems of industrial relations, the design in Germany very much follows the concept of social partnership; in Britain the design is usually based on unilateral management decisions; and (v) based on these conditions and causal pathways, 'enclave social policy' is the likely result of the expansionary policy development, although in Germany, these policies have the potential of becoming an element of 'industrial citizenship'.

Shahidi, Faraz Vahid. 2015. "Welfare Capitalism in Crisis: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Labour Market Policy Responses to the Great Recession." Journal of Social Policy 44 (4):659-86.

Abstract: Social policy responses to the recent economic crisis have varied considerably across advanced capitalist countries. This study aims to explain this cross-national diversity through a qualitative comparative analysis of labour market policy responses to the Great Recession across eighteen advanced welfare states. The results of the study suggest that theories of welfare state change that attribute theoretical centrality to political and institutional factors do not provide a compelling explanation for patterns of labour market reform observed since the onset of the economic crisis. Rather, they appear to be explained principally in terms of the variable fiscal capacity of the state. In particular, the study findings indicate that the presence of fiscal crisis has acted as a necessary (but insufficient) condition for the presence of recommodification, while the absence of fiscal crisis has acted as a sufficient (but unnecessary) condition for the absence of recommodification. These empirical developments suggest that there is a need for a scholarly return to the problematic relationship between capitalism and the welfare state.
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Shanahan, Michael J., Lance D. Erickson, Stephen Vaisey, and Andrew Smolen. 2007. "Helping Relationships and Genetic Propensities: A Combinatoric Study of DRD2, Mentoring, and Educational Continuation." Twin Research and Human Genetics 10 (2):285-98.

Abstract: From conception to death, helping relationships promote positive development and enable people to surmount challenges in their lives. Is it the case that the negative consequences of a genetic propensity for risky behaviors can be attenuated by helping relationships (a G × E)? But is it also the case that people with such a genetic propensity are less likely to have helping relationships compared to people without such a propensity (a rGE)? We illustrate this complex pattern of gene-environment interplay by drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and a combinatoric analytic strategy. We focus on a gene associated with dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2 TaqIA), student-mentor relationships, and educational continuation beyond secondary school. Results reveal that, for both white and black males, DRD2 A1+ (A1A1 and A1A2 genotypes) is associated with a decreased likelihood of school continuation compared to their counterparts with DRD2 A1-; mentors who are teachers compensate for this negative association (a G × E); and youth with DRD2 A1+ are less likely to have a mentor who is a teacher than their counterparts with DRD2 A1- (a rGE).

Shanahan, Michael J., Stephen Vaisey, Lance D. Erickson, and Andrew Smolen. 2008. "Environmental Contingencies and Genetic Propensities: Social Capital, Educational Continuation, and Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD2." American Journal of Sociology 114 (S1):S260-S86.

Abstract: Studies of gene-environment interplay typically focus on one environmental factor at a time, resulting in a constrained view of social context. The concept of environmental contingency is introduced as a corrective. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and qualitative comparative analysis, the authors focus on an example involving social capital, a gene associated with a dopamine receptor (DRD2), and educational continuation beyond secondary school. For boys, (1) DRD2 risk is associated with a decreased likelihood of school continuation; (2) one configuration of social capital - high parental socioeconomic status, high parental involvement in school, and a high-quality school - compensates for this negative relationship, consistent with environmental contingency; but (3) boys with DRD2 risk are less commonly observed in settings that are rich in social capital.

Shapiro, Stuart. 2008. "Does the Amount of Participation Matter? Public Comments, Agency Responses and the Time to Finalize a Regulation." Policy Sciences 41 (1):33-49.

Abstract: The notice and comment rulemaking process is a fundamental part of how agencies write regulations. While this process is starting to receive more empirical attention, the question of how the number of comments that an agency receives affects its decision-making process has received little examination. This paper uses Boolean analysis to examine nine rules from two agencies at the Department of Health and Human Services and evaluates the impact of a high volume of comments on agency changes to proposed rules and the time an agency takes to finalize a proposed rule. These nine cases suggest that agencies are most likely to change their proposals when they receive a high volume of comments on highly complex rules that are not very politically salient. Highly complex rules are also likely to take a long time to finalize when there are many public comments however it is often other factors that cause a long delay between proposed and final rules.

Sheehy, Thomas J., and Nels Marcus Thygeson. 2014. "Physician Organization Care Management Capabilities Associated with Effective Inpatient Utilization Management: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis." BMC Health Services Research 14 (582).

Abstract: Background: We studied the relationship between physician organization (PO) care management capabilities and inpatient utilization in order to identify PO characteristics or capabilities associated with low inpatient bed-days per thousand. Methods: We used fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to conduct an exploratory comparative case series study. Data about PO capabilities were collected using structured interviews with medical directors at fourteen California POs that are delegated to provide inpatient utilization management (UM) for HMO members of a California health plan. Health plan acute hospital claims from 2011 were extracted from a reporting data warehouse and used to calculate inpatient utilization statistics. Supplementary analyses were conducted using Fisher's Exact Test and Student's T-test. Results: POs with low inpatient bed-days per thousand minimized length of stay and surgical admissions by actively engaging in concurrent review, discharge planning, and surgical prior authorization, and by contracting directly with hospitalists to provide UM-related services. Disease and case management were associated with lower medical admissions and readmissions, respectively, but not lower bed-days per thousand. Conclusions: Care management methods focused on managing length of stay and elective surgical admissions are associated with low bed-days per thousand in high-risk California POs delegated for inpatient UM. Reducing medical admissions alone is insufficient to achieve low bed days per thousand. California POs with high bed-days per thousand are not applying care management best practices.

Sidki Darendeli, Izzet, and T. L. Hill. 2016. "Uncovering the Complex Relationships between Political Risk and MNE Firm Legitimacy: Insights from Libya." Journal of International Business Studies 47 (1):68-92.

Abstract: Using the before-after natural experiment occasioned by the Arab Spring in Libya, we explore how market and non-market activity affect foreign firm legitimacy in times of political turmoil. Although all MNEs in Libya had to cultivate strong ties to Qadhafi to succeed during his 40 years of rule, we found that those that also invested in social-benefit projects and in social ties with families with few ties to the Qadhafi family earned a broad-based legitimacy that helped them survive Qadhafi's overthrow. Our findings contribute to the political risk and political behavior literature the notion that the pursuit of firm legitimacy in general, and especially in the eyes of social-sector actors, is an effective hedge against political risk. More theoretically, our findings support the addition of a social-sector-based path to firm legitimacy in the host country that complements and may at times substitute for, the government-based path to foreign firm legitimacy. Practically, our findings suggest that MNEs' facing severe political risk can improve their prospects for survival by investing in relationships with influential social groups and by offering goods or services that are perceived as socially valuable.

Skaaning, Svend-Erik. 2007. "Explaining Post-Communist Respect for Civil Liberty: A Multi-Methods Test." Journal of Business Research 60 (5):493-500.

Abstract: This article explains the level of respect for civil liberty in post-communist countries. The methodological triangulation employs both QCA methods and OLS-regression to test the influence of structural conditions, the democratization literature emphasizes. The results show that the political legacy, that is, previous experience with civil liberty and a rule-abiding bureaucracy relates strongly to present civil liberty performance. The importance of the remaining factors (modernization indicators, dependence on natural resources, and ethno-religious diversity) is somewhat unclear because the results of the methods applied diverge. Expect a lack of congruence given their different assumptions and logics. As to the QCA methods in specific, they are apparently valuable supplements, and at times even plausible alternatives, to standard statistical tests.

Skoko, Hazbo, Branka Krivokapic-Skoko, Marinko Skare, and Arnela Ceric. 2006. "ICT Adoption Policy of Australian and Croatian SMEs." Managing Global Transitions 4 (1):25-40.

Abstract: Many SMEs are currently adopting information and communication technology (ICT) and services based on it. However, there is little systematic research into how they are doing this and what are the organisational and environmental factors associated with this adoption. In this article, the authors build the model of ICT adoption in Australian and Croatian SMEs, founded on premises that smes are the main economic developing factor in all modern economies and that the adoption and the use of ICT represents the fundamental source of competitiveness and the basis for their survival on the world market. By applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Boolean algebra, the authors developed a model of necessary and sufficient factors for ICT adoption by SMEs in Australia and Croatia.

Smilde, David. 2005. "A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Conversion to Venezuelan Evangelicalism: How Networks Matter." American Journal of Sociology 111 (3):757-96.

Abstract: While the influence of networks in conversion is among the most established findings in the sociology of religion, relatively little is known about how and why they have their influence. In this study the author finds the social conformity theorization most often used in network analysis important but incomplete. Network ties are frequently influential despite little or no direct contact between ego and alter and little or no motivation to conform. Similarly, "structural availability" works not only by freeing an actor from conformity-inducing constraints but also by indicating a relative absence of social and cultural support. This absence motivates individuals for religious innovation. Finally, while network location strongly determines who converts, the individual experience of life problems remains a causal factor, and, in a small but irreducible number of cases, actors clearly exercise agency over their network locations.
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Sonnett, John. 2004. "Musical Boundaries: Intersections of Form and Content." Poetics: Journal of Empirical Research on Culture, the Media and the Arts 32 (3-4):247-64.

Abstract: Musical boundaries mark distinctions between what is valued and what is shunned among cultural objects. One prominent line of research on musical boundaries investigates variations of inclusiveness and exclusiveness - identifying cultural omnivores and univores - but has not fully considered the role of ambivalence toward genres that are neither liked nor disliked categorically. Another line of research deepens our understanding of the rhetorics, discourses, and cultural schemas organizing boundary work, but it has yet to map the combinatorial logic through which specific taste evaluations are made. In this study, I bridge research on boundary forms and organizing principles through a comparative and relational approach, combining Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Correspondence Analysis (CA) to analyze musical tastes in the U.S. Results confirm the general associations of highbrows and omnivores, lowbrows and univores, but they also show a diversity of musical boundary configurations: the largest group of omnivores do not exclude lowbrow musics; a significant subset of univores are highbrows; and those with indecisive or ambivalent boundaries favor popular music. I conclude by noting that the musical taste structure is shaped more like a parabola than a pyramid and by proposing future directions for integrating qualitative and quantitative cultural sociology.

Soulliere, Danielle M. 2005. "Pathways to Attrition: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Justifications for Police Designations of Sexual Assault Complaints." Qualitative Report 10 (3):416-38.

Abstract: The present analysis is a reframing of an earlier study conducted by the author to compensate for perceived deficiencies in previous studies on police decisions in sexual assault complaints. Specifically, qualitative comparative analysis was employed at the micro-social level to reveal justification scenarios, employed by investigating officers, which resulted in attrition at the police level. It was found that police employed the legal model in justifying "unfounded" designations while police employed both legal and extralegal models in justifying designations of "departmental discretion." Further research, expanding the database through interviews and participant observation, is necessary to fully explore justification scenarios for police designations of sexual assault complaints.

Srinivasan, V., E. F. Lambin, S. M. Gorelick, B. H. Thompson, and S. Rozelle. 2012. "The Nature and Causes of the Global Water Crisis: Syndromes from a Meta-Analysis of Coupled Human-Water Studies." Water Resources Research 48 (10): W10516.

Abstract: Freshwater scarcity has been cited as the major crisis of the 21st century, but it is surprisingly hard to describe the nature of the global water crisis. We conducted a meta-analysis of 22 coupled human–water system case studies, using qualitative comparison analysis (QCA) to identify water resource system outcomes and the factors that drive them. The cases exhibited different outcomes for human wellbeing that could be grouped into a six "syndromes" groundwater depletion, ecological destruction, drought-driven conflicts, unmet subsistence needs, resource capture by elite, and water reallocation to nature. For syndromes that were not successful adaptations, three characteristics gave cause for concern: (1) unsustainability - a decline in the water stock or ecosystem function that could result in a long-term steep decline in future human wellbeing; (2) vulnerability - high variability in water resource availability combined with inadequate coping capacity, leading to temporary drops in human wellbeing; (3) chronic scarcity - persistent inadequate access and hence low conditions of human wellbeing. All syndromes could be explained by a limited set of causal factors that fell into four categories: demand changes, supply changes, governance systems, and infrastructure/technology. By considering basins as members of syndrome classes and tracing common causal pathways of water crises, water resource analysts and planners might develop improved water policies aimed at reducing vulnerability, inequity, and unsustainability of freshwater systems.

Stanko, Michael A., and Xavier Olleros. 2013. "Industry Growth and the Knowledge Spillover Regime: Does Outsourcing harm Innovativeness but help Profit?" Journal of Business Research 66 (10):2007-16.

Abstract: The outsourcing of innovation activities, geographic clustering of firms, and mobility of labor each allow knowledge to circulate within industries. This study investigates knowledge spillover mechanisms' effects on industry innovativeness and profit, and how these effects change with the level of industry growth. Generally, the set of hypotheses presented suggests enhanced performance effects from knowledge spillover mechanisms under growth; the pace of developments in growth industries increases the importance of access to knowledge. Analysis of an industry-level data set assembled from five secondary sources consists of both regression and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). While regression detects the discrete effects of each mechanism, fsQCA identifies specific configurations of these mechanisms associated with the outcome, emphasizing causal complexity. In general, outsourcing negatively affects innovativeness (though one identified configuration represents a unique case within which outsourcing can aid innovativeness), but benefits profitability. All three elements of the knowledge spillover regime examined here have performance implications contingent on growth.

Stevenson, Ian. 2013. "Does Technology have an Impact on Learning? A Fuzzy Set Analysis of Historical Data on the Role of Digital Repertoires in Shaping the Outcomes of Classroom Pedagogy." Computers & Education 69 (0):148-58.

Abstract: In the UK, 2012 marked the tenth anniversary of the publication of the Impact 2 report, which aimed to evaluate the relationship between school pupils' ICT experience and their attainment. Whether and to what extent digital technologies actually have impacts on school pupils' learning are questions which still do not have clear answers. Taking the micro-level of everyday classroom activities as the locus of the study, this paper aims to examine appropriate methodological approaches to evaluating the conditions which enable teachers and learners to use digital technologies for pedagogical goals. Using the notion of teachers and learners' digital repertoires, those taken for granted practices developed over a period of time, as its unit of analysis, the paper applies Fuzzy Set techniques to data from Becta Measures of Attainment Survey (2003). Arguing from systemic and empirical sources, the paper shows how the historical data is relevant in mapping out the factors which enable teachers and learners to achieve (or otherwise) their desired pedagogical outcomes. Taking two cases in which pedagogy either makes use of digital repertoires to achieve curricular aims or develops learners personal repertoires, the paper indicates the need for schools to be systematic in their tracking of pupil's digital experiences, and discusses the relevance of Fuzzy Set Analysis as a methodological approach.

Stevenson, William B., and Danna Greenberg. 2000. "Agency and Social Networks: Strategies of Action in a Social Structure of Position, Opposition, and Opportunity." Administrative Science Quarterly 45 (4):651-78.

Abstract: This study uses social movement concepts to explain the success and failure of actors in a network of relationships trying to influence policies on environmental issues in a small city. Results show that strategies to take action and mobilize others in a network of interorganizational relationships can vary depending on the social context, which consists of the political opportunity structure defined by government regulators, whether the actor faces opposition, and the actor's position in the network. Decisions to engage in strategies to try to influence government regulators directly, to use a broker to reach agreements with the opposition, or to form a coalition with actors in other organizations to influence government decision makers are affected by this social context. Results also show that even peripheral actors, usually assumed to be powerless in network studies, can influence policy if they use a direct-contact strategy and the political opportunity structure is favorable.

Stolz, Erwin. 2015. "Cross-National Variation in Quality of Life of Care-Dependent Elders in Europe: A Two-Step Approach Combining Multilevel Regression and Fuzzy-Set QCA." International Journal of Sociology 45 (4):286-308.

Abstract: Cross-national variation in subjective quality of life (sQoL) among older long-term care recipients (LTCRs) in Europe is substantial but rarely subject to explicit theoretical or empirical consideration. We suggest combining multilevel regression analysis with fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in a two-step approach given the small number of countries for which cross-national survey data are available and the considerable number of potentially relevant and likely interdependent country-level characteristics. Based on data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE 2012), sQoL in 2,470 older LTCRs from 14 countries was analyzed. Results of multilevel regression analyses (1) confirmed known individual-level determinants of sQoL and provided a weighted country-level outcome to be explained by fuzzy-set QCA, where (2) we found both necessary and sufficient (combinations of) country level conditions for highand low-quality-of-life countries in Europe. In combination, these two distinct methodological tools allowed for a more comprehensive analysis of country-level characteristics on sQoL in older LTCRs in Europe.

Strandberg, Kim. 2008. "Online Electoral Competition in Different Settings - A Comparative Meta-Analysis of the Research on Party Websites and Online Electoral Competition." Party Politics 14 (2):223-44.

Abstract: This article takes a close look at two important theories concerning the effects that online party campaigning has on party competition. The equalization and normalization theories are tested for systematic logical dependence on conditions present in existing studies within the research field. The conditions are country-specific contextual settings and study-specific methodology. The method of qualitative comparative analysis is used, such that variable based reasoning can be applied in the low n case study. The main result of the analysis is that findings of normalization are mostly dependent on offline conditions - electoral settings in particular - being favourable to major parties. Concerning findings of equalization, an online media environment favourable to minor parties, compared to the offline environment proved important. Through a meta-analytical approach, the article brings important information to light on how scholarly interpretations of the two theories have been constructed.
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Sutton, Abigail M., and Murray A. Rudd. 2015. "The Effect of Leadership and Other Contextual Conditions on the Ecological and Socio-Economic Success of Small-Scale Fisheries in Southeast Asia." Ocean & Coastal Management 114 (0):102-15.

Abstract: Small scale fisheries (SSF) and communities that rely on them are increasingly at risk from social and environmental pressures. Leadership is commonly thought to be a crucial contextual condition to help alleviate those pressures in a variety of SSFs globally. This paper aims to explore how SSF leadership and other important contextual conditions act, alone and in combination, to influence desired social and ecological outcomes in SSFs. Fifty case studies from Southeast Asia were analyzed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). QCA encourages theory-informed analysis that accounts for contextuality and can identify necessary and sufficient conditions that lead to 'successful' SSF outcomes. Our results demonstrated that multiple configurations of causal conditions - pathways - led to success and failure among SSF management efforts documented in the Southeast Asian case studies. Local leadership was found to be an important determinant of ecological and social success for many case studies but the absence of a local leadership does not necessarily signal community-based fisheries management will fail. Strong local leadership could, in fact, play an important role in achieving negative outcomes in some circumstances. Effective local leadership can be supported via high level institutions and communities, through access to resources, and simply through community-oriented motivations or intentions among leaders. While the SSFs in this study were diverse and complex socio-ecological systems, regularities among potential determinants of SSF success could be identified, suggesting that key ecological and social conditions affecting both social and ecological outcomes may, in the future, be used to identify interventions to support SSF management. This study highlighted the importance of research that considers societal processes and their interactions with the environment, and of the importance of continued efforts to fully document SSF management innovations and institutions over time.
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Suzuki, Akisato, and Neophytos Loizides. 2011. "Escalation of Interstate Crises of Conflictual Dyads: Greece-Turkey and India-Pakistan." Cooperation and Conflict 46 (1):21-39.

Abstract: This article examines the causation and extent of interstate crisis escalation among two conflictual dyads, namely Greece-Turkey and India-Pakistan. It draws from the International Crisis Behaviour dataset to present a new sub-dataset of 12 interstate crises involving the two dyads in the period 1987 to 2002. While crisis behaviour in Greece-Turkey has frequently been analysed within the context of two major regional organizations (NATO and the EU), Indian-Pakistani crises have been studied within the perspective of nuclear proliferation. To examine the linkage between these features and interstate crises, the article operationalizes the security dilemma and the diversionary theory of war through a probabilistic model. Using Ragin's (2000) comparative qualitative analysis, it demonstrates that both the security dilemma and diversionary theory explain crisis escalation, although the latter covers more cases with a smaller margin of error. Moreover, the article demonstrates that Greek-Turkish crises have generally escalated to relatively low levels of conflict (threat of war or show of force), while Indian-Pakistani crises have spiralled to higher levels of confrontation (use of force). In both dyads, nuclear weapons and regional organizations have shaped the boundaries of possible escalatory action. The EU and NATO have contributed to mitigating crisis escalation and the use of force between the Aegean neighbours, while unintentionally encouraging low intensity confrontations; meanwhile, in South Asia, nuclear weapons in combination with fragile domestic regimes have exacerbated crises, particularly in the form of state-sponsored unconventional warfare.

Svevo-Cianci, Kimberly A., Stuart N. Hart, and Claude Rubinson. 2010. "Protecting Children from Violence and Maltreatment: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis Assessing the Implementation of U.N. CRC Article 19." Child Abuse & Neglect 34 (1):45-56.

Abstract: Objectives: (1) To identify which United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) recommended child protection (CP) measures, such as policy, reporting systems, and services for child abuse and neglect (CAN) victims, individually or in combination, were most important in establishing a basic level of child protection in 42 countries; and (2) to assess whether these measures were necessary or sufficient to achieve basic child protection in developing and industrialized countries. Method: Child protection and/or rights expert respondents from 42 countries completed a questionnaire on CRC Article 19 (CRC19) required CP measures implementation and rated their country's effectiveness in implementation, the current level of effectiveness of child protection, and the relevance of improvements in child protection since the CRC was adopted in 1989. Information from the Committee on the Rights of the Child Concluding Observations, as well as UNICEF and WHO indicators on child health and protection issues were used to check and supplement responses. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was used to identify child protection measure implementation effectiveness. Results: Results indicate that child protection judged as comparatively more successful among study countries is a result of having the following measures in place from two types of social programs: a CP infrastructure (legislation plus services) and at least one information-based intervention support program. Conclusions: Fourteen (33%) countries were determined to have established at least a basic CP system toward protection of children from violence and maltreatment. These countries reported having the three required elements described above. The study reinforces the need for governments to take a systems approach to child protection, including policy/legislation, information-based programs and social services, as well as professional training and public awareness raising. The top-ranked countries included: Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom. Practice implications: Governments need to establish CP systems with multiple, well-integrated, effective CP measures as elaborated above, working with trained professionals and also raising public awareness to ensure successful protection for all children in every country. Partial measures are not effective. Further, in addition to establishing, implementing, and evaluating the effectiveness of professional interventions, the actual outcomes for children, not studied or reported on here, need to be the priority focus for child protection going forward.

Takahashi, Takuya, and Masao Nakamura. 2005. "Bureaucratization of Environmental Management and Corporate Greening: An Empirical Analysis of Large Manufacturing Firms in Japan." Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 12 (4):210-9.

Abstract: We have used qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to empirically investigate relationships between the organizational structure of environmental management within large Japanese manufacturing firms and their corporate greening processes. Three dimensions of bureaucratization (i.e., formalization, centralization and professionalization) were chosen as the independent variables. Measures of corporate greening, such as integration of environmental responses into general management, introduction of green technologies and transformation of corporate culture, were chosen as the dependent variables. Our sample consists of 193 firms obtained in a survey conducted in 1997. We find that bureaucratization of environmental management generally has a positive relationship with corporate greening and that the presence of one or two of the three dimensions of bureaucratization may be sufficient for corporate greening to implement certain greening measures. The relationship between bureaucratization and ISO 14001 environmental management systems (ISO 14001 EMSs) and limitations of EMSs are also discussed.

Taylor, Linnet. 2015. "Inside the Black Box of Internet Adoption: The Role of Migration and Networking in Internet Penetration in West Africa." Policy & Internet 7 (4):423-46.

Abstract: Research on the role of international networking and mobility in technology transfer to developing countries has focused on the firm level, looking at either spillovers from clusters of foreign firms or international trade. However this leaves micro-level processes of adoption in more marginal areas a "black box" - a knowledge gap that is problematic for policymakers because technological inequalities between rich and poor within developing countries suggest that new technologies often fail to spread as hoped. This article offers empirical evidence on processes of Internet access provision and adoption at the micro-level in Ghana, with particular attention to the importance of international mobility as a way for small-scale entrepreneurs, so far a neglected resource in Internet penetration policy, to access technological resources and knowledge. Using a mixed methods approach combining fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis and social network analysis, this article argues that international mobility and networking are an important but neglected factor in technology access and adoption, contributing to Internet penetration into marginalized areas where usership was previously rare or nonexistent.

Thiem, Alrik. 2011. "Conditions of Intergovernmental Armaments Cooperation in Western Europe, 1996-2006." European Political Science Review 3 (1):1-33.

Abstract: Defence cooperation between Western European countries has increased considerably since the end of the Cold War. An analytical distinction can be made between political and economic cooperation, the latter having been neglected by political scientists. This study advances the debate on economic cooperation by identifying sources of variation in the European Union (EU)-15 countries' membership rate in cooperative armaments fora aimed at restructuring the demand side of European defence from 1996 to 2006. By combining six models from three different schools of thought, the risk of confirmation bias through intra-paradigmatic reasoning is reduced. At the same time, fuzzy-set analysis opens up the space for data-driven combination effects. Two distinct combinations form sufficient paths leading to high rates of membership. Most importantly, intentions to create collective defence technological and industrial benefits combine with trust in partners' ability and integrity to form an essential combination of conditions for governments to pursue cooperation on armaments.
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Tho, Nguyen Dinh, and Nguyen Thi Mai Trang. 2015. "Can Knowledge be Transferred from Business Schools to Business Organizations through In-Service Training Students? SEM and fsQCA Findings." Journal of Business Research 68 (6):1332-40.

Abstract: Employing the ability-motivation-opportunity model, this study proposes that knowledge acquired from business schools by students, students' intrinsic motivation, and innovative culture of business organizations are factors that affect the transfer of knowledge from business schools to business organizations through in-service training students. Using a sample of 843 in-service training business students in Vietnam, the results from SEM (structural equation modeling) support the hypotheses, except for the impact of innovative culture on knowledge transfer. However, the results from fsQCA (fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis) with the same data set reveal that none of the above-mentioned factors are sufficient conditions for knowledge transfer. Instead, combinations of these three factors are. Overall, it is believed that the study findings shed light on a new channel of knowledge transfer, that is, in-service training students, not investigated by prior research.

Thomann, Eva. 2015. "Is Output Performance all about the Resources? A Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Street-Level Bureaucrats in Switzerland." Public Administration 93 (1):177-94.

Abstract: This article refines Lipsky's assertion that lacking resources negatively affects output performance. It uses fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis to analyse the nuanced interplay of contextual and individual determinants of the output performance of veterinary inspectors as street-level bureaucrats in Switzerland. Moving 'beyond Lipsky', the study builds on recent theoretical contributions and a systematic comparison across organizational contexts. Against a widespread assumption, output performance is not all about resources. The impact of perceived available resources hinges on caseloads, which prove to be more decisive. These contextual factors interact with individual attitudes emerging from diverse public accountabilities. The results contextualize the often-emphasized importance of worker-client interaction. In a setting where clients cannot escape the interaction, street-level bureaucrats are not primarily held accountable by them. Studies of output performance should thus consider gaps between what is being demanded of and offered to street-level bureaucrats, and the latter's multiple embeddedness.
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Thomann, Eva. 2015. "Customizing Europe: Transposition as Bottom-Up Implementation." Journal of European Public Policy 22 (10):1368-87.

Abstract: European Union (EU) implementation research has neglected situations when member states go beyond the minimum requirements prescribed in EU directives (gold-plating). The top-down focus on compliance insufficiently accounts for the fact that positive integration actually allows member states to transcend the EU's requirements to facilitate context-sensitive problem-solving. This study adopts a bottom-up implementation perspective. Moving beyond compliance, it introduces the concept of 'customization' to depict how transposition results in tailor-made solutions in a multilevel system. The study analyses the hitherto unexplored veterinary drug regulations of four member states. Using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis and formal theory evaluation, this article assesses how policy and country-level factors interact. Results reveal the countries' different customization styles. The latter simultaneously reflect the interplay of domestic politics with institutions, and the 'fit' of EU regulatory modes with domestic, sectoral interventionist styles. Compliance approaches cannot fully explain these fine-grained patterns of Europeanization.
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Thomson, Stephanie. 2011. "Exploring when Maternal Interest is Sufficient for High Attainment in Mathematics: A Configurational Analysis Using Longitudinal Data." Methodological Innovations Online 6 (2):148-60.

Abstract: Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a case-based method, developed by Ragin (1987, 2000), to analyse medium- and large-n datasets. It uses Boolean algebra to show which configurations of factors in a model are either necessary and/or sufficient for a specified outcome. In the social world, we rarely see perfect necessity and sufficiency but we can use QCA to assess the degree of necessity or sufficiency to find configurations which are quasi-necessary or quasi-sufficient. In this paper, I use crisp-set QCA on data from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study (BCS70) to investigate which configurations of sex, maternal interest, social class and, later, ability are quasi-sufficient for various levels of attainment in maths. Firstly, I explain how to conduct QCA, through the use of examples, before using a set-theoretic measure of consistency to explore the relationship between sex, social class, maternal interest and, what I term, above-average attainment in mathematics. To this model, I then introduce an additional factor of general ability (operationalised as several dichotomous factors, each indicating a certain level of ability) leading to instances of configurations having strong subset relations but containing very few cases. These rows, called remainders, cannot be included in a solution without theoretical justification (Ragin, 2008). For the final stage of the analysis, I create, for two different general ability levels, a "most-complex solution" (which excludes all remainder rows) and a parsimonious solution (which includes any remainder row contributing to parsimony). These act as boundaries for the "intermediate solution" which contains only those remainders which can, theoretically, be thought to obtain the outcome. I then discuss each intermediate solution and note that, in one case, it is the same as the relevant most-complex version.

Thygeson, Nels Marcus, Leif I. Solberg, Stephen E. Asche, Patricia Fontaine, Leonard Gregory Pawlson, and Sarah Hudson Scholle. 2012. "Using Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fs/QCA) to Explore the Relationship between Medical "Homeness" and Quality." Health Services Research 47 (1):22-45.

Abstract: Objective Determine, using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA), the relationship between patient-centered medical home (PCMH) systems and quality in 21 NCQA recognized medical homes. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collected in 2009, including measures of optimal diabetes care (ODC), preventive services up-to-date (PSUTD), patient experience (PEX), survey data assessing PCMH capabilities (PPC-RS), and other clinic characteristics. Study Design Cross-sectional study identifying associations between PPC-RS domains, demographic, socioeconomic, and co-morbidity measures, and quality outcomes. Data Collection/Extraction Methods PPC-RS scores were obtained by surveying clinic leaders. PSUTD and ODC scores were obtained from provider performance data. PEX data were obtained from patient surveys. Demographic, socioeconomic, and co-morbidity data were obtained from EMR and census data. Principal Findings fs/QCA identified associations between all three outcomes and PCMH capabilities: ODC and team-based care; PSUTD and preventive services systems; and all three outcomes and provider performance reporting systems. Previous statistical analysis of this data had failed to identify these relationships. Conclusions fs/QCA identified important associations that were overlooked using conventional statistics in a small-N health services data set. PCMH capabilities are associated with quality outcomes.

Toots, Anu, and Triin Lauri. 2015. "Institutional and Contextual Factors of Quality in Civic and Citizenship Education: Exploring Possibilities of Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Comparative Education 51 (2):247-75.

Abstract: This article analyses quality assurance (QA) policies of 30 countries in civic and citizenship education (CCE) by using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The main aim is to find combinations of institutional and contextual factors that are systematically associated with a high achievement in citizenship education. Based on fsQCA, the assumption is that several pathways to a successful education may exist. Theoretically, two model paths were constructed - the accountability and the participatory paths with distinguished contextual conditions and institutional characteristics of QA systems. Empirical analysis revealed six configurations of contextual and institutional factors, belonging to the accountability or to the participatory paths. The strongest configuration in terms of consistency and coverage is the absence of strict regulations on teaching CCE embedded by a participatory path. The result of the accountability path is more diverse, indicating that both, a more regulative New Public Management-related and an internal assessment-oriented QA might be enabled by this context.

Tóth, Zsófia, Christoph Thiesbrummel, Stephan C. Henneberg, and Peter Naudé. 2015. "Understanding Configurations of Relational Attractiveness of the Customer Firm Using Fuzzy Set QCA." Journal of Business Research 68 (3):723-34.

Abstract: This study introduces the concept of relational attractiveness of the customer (RAC) which is defined as the attitude of the supplier towards the customer firm in order to maintain and/or to improve an existing business relationship. Social Exchange Theory explains relational exchanges in business markets and provides a configurational logic for RAC. Based on an empirical investigation of the RAC perception of senior managers from 617 supplier companies, this study explores conditions of relational customer attractiveness, including financial and non-financial benefits, costs, trust and dependency. Using a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the study uncovers different configurations of these conditions that lead to high or low relational customer attractiveness. The results show that financial benefits are present in all configurations leading to high relational customer attractiveness, but other conditions also need to be present.

Trujillo, Tina M., and Sarah L. Woulfin. 2014. "Equity-Oriented Reform Amid Standards-Based Accountability: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of an Intermediary's Instructional Practices." American Educational Research Journal 51 (2):253-93.

Abstract: Intermediary organizations increasingly provide support for schools serving marginalized students. Some attribute this trend to growing ideological support for market-based strategies to further the public good. This article investigates one intermediary that marketed equity-oriented instructional goals for schools serving high numbers of students of color and English Learners. Drawing on critical policy studies and political science, we analyze its behavior amid a high-stakes accountability environment, its reasons for adopting certain reforms, and the consequences for instruction. We use qualitative comparative analysis to show how policy forces shaped reforms and content in its schools, but not pedagogy specific to students of color or English Learners. We discuss the implications for the research on intermediaries and the democratic control of public education.

Uhnoo, Sara, Sofia Persson, Hans Ekbrand, and Sven-Åke Lindgren. 2015. "Juvenile School Firesetting in Sweden: Causes and Countermeasures." Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention 16 (1):25-40.

Abstract: Deliberately set school fires cause significant economic, material, and social damage to society. This article aims to contribute to a sociological understanding and explanation of school fires set by juveniles and to the development of effective prevention strategies based on the results obtained. The study draws upon comprehensive empirical data from qualitative and quantitative research consisting of a questionnaire survey, substantive interviews, and document analysis. The findings show firesetting to be a complex, multifaceted phenomenon, which calls for a diversified approach to prevention relying on structural, situational, and social interventions. While juveniles setting schools on fire appear in many respects to be similar to other youths engaged in delinquent behaviours in society, the fires they set can be internally categorized according to firesetting motive, offender characteristics, and modus operandi. The implications of the resulting typology of six main types of school fires for prevention work are discussed, with practical suggestions for effective countermeasures offered.
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Underdal, Arild. 2012. "Strategies in International Regime Negotiations: Reflecting Background Conditions or Shaping Outcomes?" International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 12 (2):129-44.

Abstract: Negotiation behaviour is usually seen as an intervening variable - adapted to structural and institutional conditions, but with sufficient degrees of freedom to leave its own imprint on outcomes. Little is known, however, about the extent to which negotiation behaviour in fact shapes outcomes. This paper addresses that question, building on data from the Miles et al. (Environmental regime effectiveness: confronting theory with evidence. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002 ) environmental regimes project. Four main conclusions can be inferred from the analysis. First, the Miles et al. core model seems to account for a fair amount of the variance observed in the strategies adopted by "pushers" and "laggards", but it also leaves ample scope for other explanations. Second, both of these groups respond to the choice of strategy made by the other. Third, adding negotiation strategies to the Miles et al. core model does not significantly change the conclusions obtained from that model itself. Finally, sometimes negotiation strategies - in particular combinations of strategies - nevertheless make a real difference, often through interplay with other factors. To better understand when and how this occurs, we need models that are more sophisticated and a combination of methodological tools designed for aggregating as well as separating effects.

Vaisey, Stephen. 2007. "Structure, Culture, and Community: The Search for Belonging in 50 Urban Communes." American Sociological Review 72 (6):851-73.

Abstract: Driven by the popularity of social capital theories, the concept of community is enjoying a renaissance in sociology. Yet much research in this area relies on exclusively "structural" thinking, attributing group identification to mechanisms such as the arrangement of physical space, power relations, or high investment requirements. Often neglected is a strand of theory that attributes gemeinschaft to shared moral order and culture. Using data from the Urban Communes Project, this article directly tests the influence of both structural and cultural mechanisms in producing the experience of community. Although the results show that both structural and cultural mechanisms are positively correlated with gemeinschaft, they also confirm the existence of shared moral order as the most likely proximate mechanism for creating community in these groups. Analyses using fuzzy-set techniques illustrate how culture and structure combine to sustain-or inhibit-the experience of community.

Valliere, Dave, Ni Na, and Sean Wise. 2008. "Prior Relationships and M&A Exit Valuations: A Set-Theoretic Approach." Journal of Private Equity 11 (2):60-72.

Abstract: An empirical investigation was conducted into the effects that prior relationships between buyer and target firm have on the purchase price paid. Forty acquisitions of Canadian and US high-technology firms are examined using a set-theoretic approach (Ragin [2000]) to determine the effects of industry and inter-firm alliances on the price-to-book ratio. We find that specific combinations of prior relationship type are positively associated with higher prices. These results suggest that relationships at different levels of analysis can act to mitigate information asymmetries in a value-creating manner and may provide practitioner guidance on strategies to increase value in M&A exits.

Valtonen, Kathleen, Jacqueline Cameron Padmore, Michele Sogren, and Letnie Rock. 2009. "Lived Experiences of Vulnerability in the Childhood of Persons Recovering from Substance Abuse." Journal of Social Work 9 (1):39-60.

Abstract: Summary: The aim of the study was to deepen understanding of the context of vulnerability which is associated with drug-taking behaviour and addiction. The researchers sought to identify recurring psychosocial and environmental factors in the childhood and early adulthood backgrounds of the participants. They further scrutinized the data for pairs or co-occurrences of such risk factors across the target groups. Qualitative methodology was employed, based on in-depth interviews. The participants were accessed in drug rehabilitation centres in Trinidad and in Barbados, bringing a cross-national dimension to the work. The Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) method was used to analyse the data. Findings: It is significant that nearly half of the Trinidad group and two-thirds of the Barbados group reported experience of rejection or abandonment in childhood. A profile of stressful or traumatic experiences was compiled for each participant, from which it was possible to identify co-ocurring pairs of stressors, which suggest inter-relationships between the phenomena. Marked co-occurrence was found between domestic violence and alcoholism; domestic violence in the participants' family background and non-attainment of. Secondary School Certification; non-attainment of Secondary School Certification and rejection; poverty and rejection; domestic violence and rejection. Applications: Case management techniques can benefit from research-generated insights on interrelationships between critical risk-connected phenomena, especially in developing concerted approaches to problems of substance abuse using preventive techniques.
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van der Heijden, Jeroen. 2014. "Experimentation in Policy Design: Insights from the Building Sector." Policy Sciences 47 (3):249-66.

Abstract: The current article questions how experimentation in policy design plays out in practice. In particular, it is interested in understanding how the content and process of policy-design experiments affect their outcomes. The article does so by building on an original study into 31 real-world examples of experimentation in policy design in the building sector in Australia, the Netherlands, and the United States. All examples aim to improve the environmental sustainability of the building sector. The article finds that these 31 examples have attracted moderate to substantial numbers of participants (policy outcome HO.i), but have not achieved substantial numbers of buildings built or retrofitted with high levels of sustainability (policy outcome HO.ii). By carefully unpacking these policy designs into a number of key characteristics, it finds that this mismatch between the two outcomes may partly be explained by flawed policy-design processes. The article concludes with the main lessons learnt and provides some suggestions on how to improve experimentation in policy design.

van der Heijden, Jeroen. 2014. "Voluntary Programmes for Building Retrofits: Opportunities, Performance and Challenges." Building Research & Information 43 (2):170-84.

Abstract: Around the globe governments, businesses and citizens are actively involved in voluntary programmes that seek an improved uptake of retrofits of the existing building stock. A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) is used to understand the opportunities, performance and constraints of such programmes. Building on a series of 20 voluntary programmes in Australia, the Netherlands and the United States (including a series of 101 original interviews), the analysis finds that the majority of these have not succeeded in incentivizing their participants to take meaningful action. Insights are presented into why the majority of these programmes have underperformed, and what binds together the small number of programmes that have achieved positive results.

van der Heijden, Jeroen. 2015. "The Role of Government in Voluntary Environmental Programmes: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Public Administration 93 (3):576-92.

Abstract: Voluntary Environmental Programmes (VEPs) have become increasingly popular in addressing environmental risks. While VEPs have attracted much scholarly attention, little is known about how they achieve their outcomes. This article seeks to better understand whether and how the roles of governments in VEPs affect their outcomes in terms of (1) attracting participants, and (2) their contribution to a desired collective end. Using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), this article addresses a series of 31 VEPs in the building sectors of Australia, the Netherlands, and the United States. Of particular interest is a better understanding of what configurations of five specific governmental roles in VEPs are sufficient to attract participants and contribute to a desired collective end. Three ideal type roles for governments in VEPs, that are positively related to the two outcomes under scrutiny, are uncovered, and the article concludes with lessons on how governments may be best involved in VEPs.

van Vliet, Nathalie, Anette Reenberg, and Laura Vang Rasmussen. 2013. "Scientific Documentation of Crop Land Changes in the Sahel: A Half Empty Box of Knowledge to Support Policy?" Journal of Arid Environments 95 (0):1-13.

Abstract: The Sahel has been subject of considerable environmental research and development efforts, specifically since the droughts of the 1970s and 1980s. This article uses a meta-study approach to summarize knowledge of crop land change, the documented driving forces, and the perceived impacts. The analysis of case studies shows that crop land has increased in the majority of cases mainly due to population increase. However, despite population increase, crop land has been stable in some areas, particularly where land availability is a limiting factor or where farmers are able to intensify their farmers from expanding their plots or because households have diversified their activities. The study shows the huge gap in the scientific literature concerning actual measurements of crop land change in the Sahel, which is in contrast to the attention given to crop land changes in theoretical and policy discourses. On the basis of the poor documentation available on crop land change and the contrasting results observed, we point out the need to exercise caution with regard to simple narratives about crop land change.

Vandecasteele, Bruno, Fabienne Bossuyt, and Jan Orbie. 2015. "A Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis of the Hungarian, Polish and Lithuanian Presidencies and European Union Eastern Partnership Policies." European Politics and Society 16 (4):556-80.

Abstract: This article analyses and compares the influence of the Hungarian, Polish and Lithuanian Presidencies of the Council of the European Union (taking place between 2011 and 2013) on the Union's policies towards the countries of the Eastern Partnership - Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The influence of the Presidencies is compared through qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), which aims to identify necessary and sufficient conditions for influence to occur. The results show that there is only one necessary condition for the Presidency to exert influence, that is, the issue should be highly salient to the incumbent Member State. The absence of any other condition for influence does as such not hamper Presidency influence. Moreover, the analysis reveals three sufficient combinations of conditions for Presidency influence, in which the individual conditions play different roles. The application of QCA to Presidency influence leads to novel insights and stimulates conceptual clarity on the level of and the conditions for influence.

Varone, Frédéric, Christine Rothmayr, and Eric Montpetit. 2006. "Regulating Biomedicine in Europe and North America: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." European Journal of Political Research 45 (2):317-43.

Abstract: This article explains the variation in policy design processes and the resulting policy-outputs of 'biopolicies' implemented within the domain of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) for eleven European and North-American countries. By applying the method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis, the comparison describes and defines the 'multiple conjunctural causation' to explain the divergences or similarities of ART policies in Europe and North America. The policy preferences of the actors involved in the relevant ART policy network and the institutional rules characterizing the respective polity need to be considered together in order to explain why different countries adopted similar or different ART policies. In particular, the analysis stresses the influence of party politics, the self-regulation of ART by the physicians, the mobilization of interest groups, the number of institutional arenas involved in the designing process and the nature of decision-making rules (power-sharing versus majority) on the designing processes and the resulting policies. Thus, different policy designs are linked to different designing processes, encompassing four ideal-typical decision-making modes: 'designing by non-decisions', 'designing by elites', 'designing by accommodation' and 'designing by mobilization and consultation'. These results shed new light on the challenges for developing a policy design theory that could provide a robust framework for describing and explaining policy formulation.
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Verweij, Stefan. 2015. "Achieving Satisfaction when Implementing PPP Transportation Infrastructure Projects: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of the A15 Highway DBFM Project." International Journal of Project Management 33 (1):189-200.

Abstract: This article investigates how managers in public-private partnership (PPP) projects respond to social or physical events during the implementation of their projects, and which of their responses produce satisfactory outcomes. Multi-value Qualitative Comparative Analysis (mvQCA) was used to examine the events that took place during a large Dutch Design, Build, Finance and Maintain (DBFM) transportation infrastructure project. The analysis found that most events were social in nature. Private managers' responses to these events were internally-oriented and resulted in dissatisfactory outcomes. In contrast, externally-oriented managerial responses were associated with satisfactory outcomes. The article concludes that both public and private managers need to invest sufficiently in stakeholder management resources and capabilities when implementing projects. Although the intention of DBFM contracts is to lower the burden on the government, public managers still play an important role as intermediaries between the contractor and the local stakeholders and this role should not be underestimated.
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Verweij, Stefan. 2015. "Producing Satisfactory Outcomes in the Implementation Phase of PPP Infrastructure Projects: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis of 27 Road Constructions in the Netherlands." International Journal of Project Management 33 (8):1877-87.

Abstract: An understudied aspect for the successful completion of PPP infrastructure projects is the extent to which they are satisfactorily implemented. Studying PPP implementation is important though, because well-planned projects can fail if project implementation is inadequately managed. This article aims to find out which management and public-private cooperation approaches produce satisfaction for public procurers in the implementation phase of different kinds of infrastructure projects. To this purpose, twenty-seven Dutch road construction projects are systematically analyzed with fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The results show four configurations that produce satisfaction. It is concluded that externally-oriented management, which is characterized by a stakeholder-oriented project implementation approach, and close public-private cooperation, where public and private partners work together closely and interactively, are important for achieving satisfaction. In less complex projects with narrower scopes, however, the partners may rely on less interactive forms of cooperation, more characterized by monitoring contract compliance.

Verweij, Stefan, and Lasse M. Gerrits. 2015. "How Satisfaction Is Achieved in the Implementation Phase of Large Transportation Infrastructure Projects: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis Into the A2 Tunnel Project." Public Works Management & Policy 20 (1):5-28.

Abstract: In the implementation phase of transportation infrastructure projects, unplanned events will inevitably occur. Although this is increasingly acknowledged, little systematic research has been conducted into what management strategies are best for dealing with these unplanned events. This article investigates how managers respond to unplanned events that occur in the context of a project during implementation, and which management responses produce satisfactory outcomes. To evaluate what strategies work in what contexts, we introduce multi-value Qualitative Comparative Analysis (mvQCA) and apply it to the Dutch A2 Maastricht transportation infrastructure project (the Netherlands). We produced systematic evidence that (a) internally oriented private management is associated with low satisfaction; (b) externally oriented management is associated with high satisfaction in responding to social, local unplanned events; and (c) that internally oriented management is associated with high satisfaction, depending in particular on the nature of the cooperation between principal and contractor in the project.
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Verweij, Stefan, Erik-Hans Klijn, Jurian Edelenbos, and Arwin Van Buuren. 2013. "What makes Governance Networks work? A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis of 14 Dutch Spatial Planning Projects." Public Administration 91 (4):1035-55.

Abstract: Many studies have been conducted to determine the conditions that contribute to the satisfactory outcome of decision-making processes in governance networks. In this article, we explore how the interaction of three such conditions - network complexity, network management, and stakeholder involvement - results in stakeholder satisfaction. We use fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis - a relatively new approach in public administration research - to systematically compare the decision-making processes and outcomes of 14 Dutch spatial planning projects. Our analysis points to three combinations that result in stakeholder satisfaction: network complexity combined with adaptive management; stakeholder involvement combined with adaptive management; and low complexity combined with both limited stakeholder involvement and closed network management.
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Veugelers, John, and André Magnan. 2005. "Conditions of Far-Right Strength in Contemporary Western Europe: An Application of Kitschelt's Theory." European Journal of Political Research 44 (6):837-60.

Abstract: Applying the demand-side claims of Kitschelt's theory, and the expectation that electoral systems affect voter choice, this article provides an explanation of cross-national variation in support for new radical right (NRR) parties between 1982 and 1995. After discussing concepts and measures, two versions of qualitative comparative analysis (Boolean analysis and fuzzy-set analysis) are applied to data for ten West European countries. The results suggest that, in combination with electoral systems that had larger district magnitudes, NRR strength resulted from a restructuring of the space of party competition due to post-industrialism and growth in the welfare state. Convergence between major parties of the left and right was not among the combination of conditions that led to NRR success. Apart from demonstrating that fuzzy-set analysis can yield a simpler explanation than Boolean analysis, this study reveals anomalous NRR outcomes for Austria, Belgium and France.
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Vis, Barbara. 2011. "Under which Conditions does Spending on Active Labor Market Policies Increase? An fsQCA Analysis of 53 Governments between 1985 and 2003." European Political Science Review 3 (2):229-52.

Abstract: This article examines the conditions under which governments increase spending on active labor market policies (ALMPs), as the European Union and the organization of economic co-operation and development recommend. Given that ALMPs are usually expensive and unlikely to win a government many votes, this study hypothesizes that an improving socio-economic situation is a necessary condition for increased spending. On the basis of the data of 53 governments from 18 established democracies between 1985 and 2003, the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis shows that there are different combinations of conditions, or routes, toward activation and that an improving socio-economic situation is needed for each of them. Specifically, the analysis reveals that governments activate under decreasing unemployment combined with (1) trade openness, or (2) the absence of corporatism in the case of leftist governments, or (3) the presence of corporatism in the case of rightist governments. These findings advance our understanding of the politics of labor market reform.

Vis, Barbara. 2009. "The Importance of Socio-Economic and Political Losses and Gains in Welfare State Reform." Journal of European Social Policy 19 (5):395-407.

Abstract: When do governments pursue unpopular reform, such as cutting benefits? And when do they engage in not-unpopular reform, such as activation? Current approaches in welfare state research cannot systematically explain the cross-government variation in the two types of reform. Based on insights from prospect theory, a psychological theory of choice under risk, this article complements existing theories by arguing that losses and gains matter crucially for welfare state reform. A fs/QCA analysis of labour market reforms pursued by 23 Danish, German, Dutch and British Cabinets between 1979 and 2005 corroborates this hypothesis. Specifically, it shows that an improving political position (a gain) is the necessary condition for not-unpopular reform while for unpopular reform it is a deteriorating socio-economic situation (a loss). This finding helps account for the puzzling cross-government variation in different types of welfare state reform.

Vis, Barbara. 2009. "Governments and Unpopular Social Policy Reform: Biting the Bullet or Steering Clear?" European Journal of Political Research 48 (1):31-57.

Abstract: Under which conditions and to what extent do governments pursue unpopular social policy reforms for which they might be punished in the next election? This article shows that there exists substantial cross-cabinet variation in the degree to which governments take unpopular measures and argues that current studies cannot adequately explain this variation. Using insights from prospect theory, a psychological theory of choice under risk, this study hypothesises that governments only engage in unpopular reform if they face a deteriorating socio-economic situation, a falling political position, or both. If not, they shy away from the risk of reform. A fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fs/QCA) of the social policy reform activities pursued by German, Dutch, Danish and British cabinets between 1979 and 2005 identifies a deteriorating socio-economic situation as necessary for unpopular reform. It is only sufficient for triggering reform, however, if the political position is also deteriorating and/or the cabinet is of rightist composition. This study's findings further the scholarly debate on the politics of welfare state reform by offering a micro-foundation that helps one to understand what induces political actors aspiring to be re-elected to engage in electorally risky unpopular reform.
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Vis, Barbara, Jaap Woldendorp, and Hans Keman. 2013. Examining Variation in Economic Performance Using Fuzzy-Sets. Quality & Quantity 47(4): 1971-89.

Abstract: How to account for variation in economic performance across countries and periods? This paper proposes a new substantive and methodological approach. Substantively, we focus on variation in overall performance: the combination of growth, employment, and debt. We construct eight models using these variables and analyze countries' fit to them. Methodologically, we employ fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The analysis of 19 OECD countries between 1975 and 2005 fails to support traditional hypotheses about partisanship, central bank independence, trade openness, and corporatism. Instead, different combinations of conditions are conducive to good performance and these differ across periods and countries.

von Kulessa, Alexander, and Georg Wenzelburger. 2015. "Starker Steuerwettbewerb - starke Reformen? Ein neuer Blick auf Unternehmenssteuerreformen in 15 EU-Staaten (1998-2011)." Swiss Political Science Review 21 (2):302-32.

Abstract: Although many EU-countries have reduced corporate taxes in the recent years, there is still a substantial variance between the 12 oldest EU-member states. This contribution revisits this variation and analyses the determinants of corporate tax reforms and their magnitude from a perspective which is new in two respects: First, we combine logistic panel regression and fsQCA analysis allowing for an integration of qualitative assessments of tax reforms in the QCA analysis. This adds to the existing studies on tax reform which almost exclusively rely on regression techniques. Second, we focus on the time period 1998-2011 where we expect tax competition to be especially intense. The results of our analyses confirm the major impact of tax competition on national corporate tax policies. This relationship dominates the regression analyses as well as the fsQCA. Furthermore, our findings allow nuancing the existing results on the influence of institutional constraints and partisan politics.

Walker, Kent, Na Ni, and Bruno Dyck. 2015. "Recipes for Successful Sustainability: Empirical Organizational Configurations for Strong Corporate Environmental Performance." Business Strategy and the Environment 24 (1):40-57.

Abstract: We examine 45 existing case studies of firms with strong corporate environmental performance (CEP) to empirically identify four organizational configurations for successful sustainability. These four configurations represent different combinations of variables describing a firm's external environment, organizational structure, and its strategy-related activities. More specifically, these configurations vary in having a benign or challenging external environment, a mechanistic or organic structure, a low-cost or differentiation strategy, hands-on or hands-off participation by the top management team, high or low consideration given to stakeholders, and a short- or long-term time orientation. Taken together the four organizational configurations introduce an understanding of equifinality for achieving CEP. In other words, given an adequate variety of ingredients, there are multiple recipes for successful sustainability. Implications for scholars, practitioners and policy-makers and other stakeholders are discussed.

Weinberg, Adam S. 1997. "Local Organizing for Environmental Conflict." Organization & Environment 10 (2):194-216.

Abstract: Grassroots groups continue to compose a large part of the environmental movement in the United States. In this article, I examine 41 attempts by grassroots groups to work with the Sierra Club to participate in local environmental conflicts. I argue that the difference between those groups who participated in a local conflict and those groups who were unable to participate in a conflict can be explained by the ability of a group to mobilize resources, gain access to information, create ties to other participants, control the framing of a conflict, and sustain these four factors across the duration of the conflict. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, I argue that having resources and information is useful for participation but not sufficient to guarantee participation. Ultimately, participation occurs when local groups have ties with other participants in the conflict and/or the ability to control the framing of the conflict.
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Weinberg, Adam S., and Kenneth A. Gould. 1993. "Public Participation in Environmental Regulatory Conflicts: Threading through the Possibilities." Law & Policy 15 (2):139-67.

Abstract: Based on two years of qualitative field work, this paper examines public participation in environmental regulatory disputes. Drawing on political economy critiques of environmentalism, we argue that regulation is both a political arena and a legal process that is about responsivity, competition, and bargaining. A combination of case study and Boolean algebra techniques are used to refine and apply the conceptualization. Five primary factors are identified which mediate citizens' participation: (1) injormation networks, (2) social resources, (3) cooperative linkages, (4) the ability to sustain linkages and levels of resource mobilization over time, and (5) agendas which fit within the narrow constitutive norms of a particular regulatory community.
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Weiner, Bryan J., Sara R. Jacobs, Lori M. Minasian, and Marjorie J. Good. 2012. "Organizational Designs for Achieving High Treatment Trial Enrollment: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis of the Community Clinical Oncology Program." Journal of Oncology Practice 8 (5):287-91.

Abstract: Purpose: To examine the organizational design features that were consistently associated in 2010 with high levels of patient enrollment onto National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer treatment trials among the oncology practices and hospitals participating in the NCI Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP). Methods: Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis was used to identify the recipes (ie, combinations of organizational design features) that CCOPs used to achieve high levels of patient enrollment onto NCI treatment trials in 2010. Four organizational design features were examined: number of open treatment trials with at least one patient enrolled, number of newly diagnosed patients with cancer, number of CCOP-affiliated physicians, and number of CCOP-affiliated hospitals or practices where patient enrollment could occur. Data were obtained from NCI data systems and CCOP grant progress reports. Results: Two recipes were consistently associated with high levels of patient enrollment onto NCI treatment trials in 2010: having many open treatment trials and many new patients with cancer, and having many open treatment trials and many affiliated hospitals or practices. Together, these recipes accounted for nearly two thirds of CCOP membership in the high-performance set in 2010. Conclusion: No single organizational design feature, by itself, was consistently associated with high levels of patient enrollment onto NCI treatment trials in 2010. Having a large menu of active treatment trials may be necessary to achieve high-patient enrollment performance, but this is not sufficient unless combined with either large patient volume or many participating sites.
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Weissenberger-Eibl, Marion A., and Benjamin Teufel. 2013. "The Innovation Process as a Political Process - How Organisational Politics can Influence the Technological Newness of Product Innovations." International Journal of Innovation Management 17 (4):1-34.

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Werner, Timothy. 2009. "Congressmen of the Silent South: The Persistence of Southern Racial Liberals, 1949-1964." Journal of Politics 71 (1):70-81.

Abstract: Using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, this paper investigates the characteristics of white Southern constituencies that reelected racial liberals to the U.S. House in the period between the 1948 Democratic Convention and the passage of the Voting Rights Act. In doing so, it tests theories of Southern politics and the electoral connection. Further, it also addresses several methodological issues regarding inferences made from comparative-historical research. Ultimately, it reveals that racial liberals from the Peripheral South and the cities of the Deep South were able to establish bonds between themselves and their constituents that were sufficient to win reelection.

Weyland, Kurt. 1998. "The Political Fate of Market Reform in Latin America, Africa, and Eastern Europe." International Studies Quarterly 42 (4):645-73.

Abstract: Why did political leaders adopt drastic, costly neoliberal policies in a number of countries, but not in others? Why did these painful measures elicit popular support in some nations, while triggering rejection and protest elsewhere? To complement extant explanations for these puzzling developments, the article draws on the core finding of prospect theory, a psychological theory of decision making under risk: people tend toward bold, risky choices when facing prospects of losses, but opt for caution when anticipating gains. Accordingly, leaders enact and citizens support drastic reforms only when they face deep crises, such as hyperinflation. This argument yields predictions about the different stages of the reform process, which the article assesses through a wide-ranging examination of reform politics in Latin America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Boolean analysis corroborates most of the predictions derived from prospect theory, but also suggests the importance of economic and political-institutional context factors.
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Wickham-Crowley, Timothy P. 1991. "A Qualitative Comparative Approach to Latin American Revolutions." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 32 (1-2):82-109.

Abstract: Much qualitative analysis does not employ careful causal inference, and the quantitative alternative cannot be applied successfully where there are few cases, as in the study of social revolution. I apply Boolean algebra to 28 Latin American national cases since 1956, to explain the revolutionary successes in Cuba and Nicaragua and the failures or absence of revolution elsewhere. I reject various one-sided explanations of these patterns, including theories that focus only on the strengths of guerrilla movements or only on United States' military assistance or its withdrawal. Boolean analysis indicates that the convergence of five elements produced two revolutions in Latin America: (1) the attempt at guerrilla warfare, (2) guerrilla successes in securing high levels of peasant support, (3) guerrilla achievement of substantial military strength, (4) at the national level, the presence of a patrimonial praetorian regime, and (5) the withdrawal of U.S. support for that regime. Revolutionary failure or absence in the region's other 26 cases can be reduced to three basic sub-patterns, in which one or more of these five elements were absent.
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Williams, Linda Meyer, and Ronald A. Farrell. 1990. "Legal Response to Child Sexual Abuse in Day Care." Criminal Justice and Behavior 17 (3):284-302.

Abstract: Empirical studies of criminal justice decision making in cases of child sexual abuse have been rare. A sample of 43 cases of alleged sexual abuse in day care (involving 58 perpetrators) were analyzed to examine the proposition that cases fitting the popular stereotype of child molestation are more likely to elicit a formal response, whereas those at variance with the imagery require that aggravating conditions be present before formal actions are taken. Boolean analysis of the data point to the combined importance of race and sex of the victim, number of victims, type of sex act, and the sex of the alleged perpetrator in decisions to arrest and convict offenders. The overall pattern of decision making supports the argument regarding the operation of an offense stereotype in legal decision making.

Winand, Mathieu, Rihoux Benoît, David Qualizza, and Thierry Zintz. 2011. "Combinations of Key Determinants of Performance in Sport Governing Bodies." Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal 1 (3):234-51.

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on possible combinations of the key determinants of high performance in sport governing bodies (SGBs) which go well beyond the net effects of independent variables. Design/methodology/approach: The research focused on 18 sport governing bodies from the French-speaking community of Belgium (CSGBs). Their strategic goals are emphasized and their potential determinants of performance are measured and assessed. Due to the small n-sample and the causal complexity inherent in this research, a crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA) was performed. Findings: Three generic combinations of the key determinants linked with high performance were highlighted. The first was high-performing CSGBs that provide innovative activities for their membership and are proactive in elite sport services. The second was other high-performing CSGBs of large size that involve paid staff in decision-making processes and also develop innovative activities. The third was small-sized governing bodies which, although they do not have extensive resources, could perform highly when they relied on volunteer leaders and delegates activities they were not able to deliver. Research limitations/implications: Due to country and sport specificities, these results may not be generalized to all SGBs. Nevertheless, it is possible to argue that when trying to understand the performance of such complex nonprofit sport organizations, researchers and practitioners need to take into account combinations of factors, rather than independent performance variables. Originality/value: Using an innovative mixed method design dealing with causal complexity - qualitative comparative analysis - the paper highlights combinations of factors observed in high performing SGBs.
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Winand, Mathieu, Benoît Rihoux, Leigh Robinson, and Thierry Zintz. 2013. "Pathways to High Performance: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Sport Governing Bodies." Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 42 (4):739-62.

Abstract: Nonprofit organizations are facing increasing pressure to become more performance oriented. Most research in this area has focused on the effects of a variety of independent variables on performance with little research focusing on combinations of factors that impact on performance. This article focuses on sport governing bodies from Belgium and measures and assesses their strategic goals and potential determinants of performance. Due to the small N-sample and the causal complexity inherent in this research, a crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA) was carried out which highlighted three pathways associated with high performance. High performance could be delivered by sport governing bodies that develop innovative activities for their members and are proactive in elite sport services; or that develop innovative activities and involve paid staff in decision-making processes; or that involve committed volunteers in decision-making processes and delegate activities they are not able to deliver themselves.

Wollebæk, Dag. 2010. "Volatility and Growth in Populations of Rural Associations." Rural Sociology 75 (1):144-66.

Abstract: This article uses unique community-level data aggregated from censuses of associations to analyze growth and volatility in rural populations of grassroots associations. A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) shows that the two main paths to growth were (1) centralization in polycephalous (multicentered) municipalities and (2) population growth in secular municipalities. High volatility occurs in (1) societies exposed to metropolitan sprawl and (2) traditional peripheral communities with high organizational density and little sociocultural change. Despite this volatility, associational life expanded in the sprawling areas that underwent extensive sociocultural change as well as in the peripheral areas where centralization took place. By contrast, more static peripheries experienced decline. The findings challenge romanticized images of stable, small-scale communities and nuance the negative view on metropolitan sprawl.
Raw Set

Woodside, Arch, and Mann Zhang. 2012. "Identifying X-Consumers Using Causal Recipes: "Whales" and "Jumbo Shrimps" Casino Gamblers." Journal of Gambling Studies 28 (1):13-26.

Abstract: X-consumers are the extremely frequent (top 2-3%) users who typically consume 25% of a product category. This article shows how to use fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to provide "causal recipes" sufficient for profiling X-consumers accurately. The study extends Dik Twedt's "heavy-half" product users for building theory and strategies to nurture or control X-behavior. The study here applies QCA to offer configurations that are sufficient in identifying "whales" and "jumbo shrimps" among X-casino gamblers. The findings support the principle that not all X-consumers are alike. The theory and method are applicable for identifying the degree of consistency and coverage of alternative X-consumers among users of all product-service category and brands.

Woodside, Arch G. 2015. "The General Theory of Behavioral Pricing: Applying Complexity Theory to Explicate Heterogeneity and Achieve High-Predictive Validity." Industrial Marketing Management 47 (0):39-52.

Abstract: Building behavioral-pricing models-in-contexts enriches one or more goals of science and practice: description, understanding, prediction, and influence/control. The general theory of behavioral strategy includes a set of tenets that describes alternative configurations of decision processes and objectives, contextual features, and beliefs/assessments associating with different outcomes involving specific price-points. This article explicates these tenets and discusses empirical studies which support the general theory. The empirical studies include the use of alternative data collection and analytical tools including true field experiments, think aloud methods, long interviews, ethnographic decision-tree-modeling, and building and testing algorithms (e.g., fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis). The general theory of behavioral pricing involves the blending of cognitive science, complexity theory, economics, marketing, psychology, and implemented practices. Consequently, behavioral pricing theory is distinct from context-free microeconomics, market-driven, and competitor-only price-setting. Capturing and reporting contextually-driven alternative routines to price setting by a compelling set of tenets represent what is particularly new and valuable about the general theory. The general theory serves as a useful foundation for advances in pricing theory and improving pricing practice.

Woodside, Arch G., Shih-Yun Hsu, and Roger Marshall. 2011. "General Theory of Cultures' Consequences on International Tourism Behavior." Journal of Business Research 64 (8):785-99.

Abstract: National cultures represent complex configurations of values rather than a collection of distinct individual value dimensions. This presentation applies qualitative (configural) comparative analysis (QCA/CCA) to consider how cultural recipes complex configurations of national culture affect international experiential behavior. The QCA method focuses on considering asymmetric relationships reporting conditions that are sufficient (but not necessary) to cause an outcome condition (e.g., high-dollar expenditures). Using measures of consistency and coverage the QCA method provides estimates of how well alternative configurative models explain behavior rather than relying on symmetric data analysis methods (correlations and multiple regression). The method includes the use of Hofstede's country value scores with data from group-level and sub-group (by age and prior consumption experience) exit survey responses of visitors to Australia from 14 Asian, European, and North American countries. The analysis applies QCA software (www.fsQCA.com) and the presentation includes XY plots of country-level value configurations and group-level consumption for total visit expenditures, length of visit, shopping behavior, and group touring behavior.

Woodside, Arch G., and Drew Martin. 2008. "Applying Ecological Systems and Micro-Tipping Point Theory for Understanding Tourists' Leisure Destination Behavior." Journal of Travel Research 47 (1):14-24.

Abstract: Micro-tipping point (MTP) theory includes the proposal that a specific stream of unconscious and conscious thoughts result in a go and no-go discretionary action in a given context (e.g., whether or not to visit a given destination in a given season or year, with particular persons being included or excluded from the trip). The specific stream represents a stream or conjunctive combination of thoughts in context that results in a tourist party actually taking the steps that include booking the trip and experiencing a destination firsthand. Building such contingency models that are applicable to real-life combinations of unconscious and conscious thinking requires collecting data from informants on both implicit and explicit beliefs, attitudes, and thinking rules relevant for a specific yes or no context. This article illustrates applying the long interview for collecting such data and using quantitative comparative analysis for constructing MTP models.

Woodside, Arch G., Catherine Prentice, and Anders Larsen. 2015. "Revisiting Problem Gamblers' Harsh Gaze on Casino Services: Applying Complexity Theory to Identify Exceptional Customers." Psychology & Marketing 32 (1):65-77.

Abstract: This study revisits the theory, data, and analysis in Prentice and Woodside (2013). The study here applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to customer service-evaluation data from seven mega casinos in the world's gambling capital-Macau. The study includes contrarian case analysis and offers complex algorithms of highly favorable customer outcomes-an alternative stance to theory and data analysis in comparison to the dominant logic of statistical analyses that Prentice and Woodside (2013) report. Contrary to their principal hypotheses, Prentice and Woodside (2013) report a negative main effect between problem gambling and casino service evaluations. The findings in the reanalysis here include more complex, nuanced views on the antecedent conditions relating to high problem-gambling, immediate service evaluations, and desired customer behavior measures in casinos. Counter to the findings using symmetric testing via multiple regression analysis in Prentice and Woodside (2013), the present study, using asymmetric testing via fsQCA, recognizes the occurrence of causal asymmetry, and draws conclusions from different algorithms leading to high scores for favorable and unfavorable outcome conditions. The findings indicate that not all problem gamblers gaze on casino services harshly; the minority of problem gamblers who view casinos positively versus harshly may be the most valuable customers for the casinos-the casinos' exceptional customers.

Woodside, Arch G., and Mann Zhang. 2013. "Cultural Diversity and Marketing Transactions: Are Market Integration, Large Community Size, and World Religions Necessary for Fairness in Ephemeral Exchanges?" Psychology & Marketing 30 (3):263-76.

Abstract: The study here applies qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in an examination of data from 15 societies varying in their degree of market integration (MI) and participation in world religions (WRs); the data are available in Henrich et al. (2010b). The findings here provide a more nuanced coverage of the influences of cultural causal recipes on fairness and punishment in exchanges with strangers than "net effect" explanations. The coverage here explains how acts of fairness and punishment are contingent on several alternative paths including both low as well as high levels of MI and WR. Contrary to conclusions by Henrich et al. (2010a), depending on additional ingredients in cultural recipes, a society does not need to achieve MI and adoption of a WR to be fair and punish unfairness.

Woulfin, Sarah L. 2015. "Highway to Reform: The Coupling of District Reading Policy and Instructional Practice." Journal of Educational Change 16 (4):535-57.

Abstract: This article presents findings on teachers' implementation of a reading reform in an urban school district. Findings are based in observation, interview, and document data related to 12 elementary teachers' responses to a new reading program, the Teachers College Reading and Writing Workshop. Utilizing coupling theory and the concept of routines, the paper presents a nuanced portrayal of classroom-level policy implementation. The paper depicts mini-lessons, independent reading, conferencing, and instructional materials as building blocks of the new reading program, and I expose the intensity of messaging on each of these elements. I use Qualitative Comparative Analysis to analyze teachers' routines for reading instruction and show that independent reading was a common foundational step in teachers' workshop routines. This analytic technique answers questions about the combinations of conditions resulting in mini-lesson instruction. This paper extends the research on the implementation of instructional policy and has implications for policymakers, administrators, and teachers.

Wright, Rachel A., and Hilary Schaffer Boudet. 2012. "To Act or Not to Act: Context, Capability, and Community Response to Environmental Risk." American Journal of Sociology 118 (3):728-77.

Abstract: Social movement theory has rarely been tested with counterfactual cases, that is, instances in which movements do not emerge. Moreover, contemporary theories about political opportunity and resources often inadequately address the issue of motivation. To address these shortcomings, this article examines 20 communities that are "at risk" for mobilization because they face controversial proposals for large energy infrastructure projects. Movements emerge in only 10 cases, allowing for the identification of factors that drive mobilization or nonmobilization. Utilizing insights from social psychology, the authors contend that community context shapes motivations to oppose or accept a proposal, not objective measures of threat. They conclude that the combination of community context - to understand motivation - and measures of capability is the best way to model movement emergence.
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Wu, Chih-Wen. 2015. "Foreign Tourists' Intentions in Visiting Leisure Farms." Journal of Business Research 68 (4):757-62.

Abstract: This study examines antecedents of visit intention for foreign tourists. The article explores the relationship of visit intention with brand image, functional attachment, motivation, experiential activities, and agriculture product sales in the leisure farm context. The study identifies five key antecedents of visit intention. Drawing on online survey and personal interview data from 1227 foreign tourists, empirical analysis tests predicted relationships. The conceptual model explores relationships among research constructs by using structural equation modeling (SEM) and fsQCA. Findings support the hypotheses that brand image, functional attachment, motivation, experiential activities, and agriculture product attitude are key drivers of visit intention. The paper also presents a discussion of theoretical and managerial implications of the research findings for the marketing of leisure farms. Results provide unique insights to help tourist farm entrepreneurs develop businesses capable of attracting foreign visitors.

Wu, Chih-Wen. 2015. "Facebook Users' Intentions in Risk Communication and Food-Safety Issues." Journal of Business Research 68 (11):2242-7.

Abstract: This research attempts to address Facebook use intention for food safety issues in the social media context. This new open-access information environment, which coexists with traditional media and other new media channels, poses new questions about the effectiveness of Facebook use in the social media era. The study aims to examine the risk communication strategic impact by Facebook in the context of food safety issues. Specifically, this study adopts a web survey, multiple regression analysis and FsQCA analysis to address the research hypotheses from 652 consumers. Research results find that risk perception, emotion, social trust and support are the key determinants of Facebook use intention for the potential power of Facebook as an efficient tool of risk communication. The author also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of research findings.

Wu, Jih-Hwa, Chih-Wen Wu, Chin-Tarn Lee, and Hsiao-Jung Lee. 2015. "Green Purchase Intentions: An Exploratory Study of the Taiwanese Electric Motorcycle Market." Journal of Business Research 68 (4):829-33.

Abstract: This study examines the antecedents of purchase intention and the relation between purchase intention and image, risk, value, and perceived usefulness in the electric motorcycle market. The paper investigates a number of important questions concerning how image, risk, value, and perceived usefulness affect purchase intention. This article offers suggestions for campaigns aiming at increasing consumer demand for green products, including motorcycles. The technology acceptance model provides a theoretical framework in which to analyze consumer attitudes toward green purchase intentions in the motorcycle market. This study proposes and tests an integrative model to examine relations among service image, risk, value, perceived usefulness, and purchase intention. Structural equation modeling and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) provide techniques for analyzing survey data from 305 potential motorcycle users. Results support the argument that image, risk, value, and perceived usefulness are key determinants of purchase intention. The paper also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of the research findings.

Wu, Pei-Ling, Shih-Shuo Yeh, Tzung-Cheng Huan, and Arch G. Woodside. 2014. "Applying Complexity Theory to Deepen Service Dominant Logic: Configural Analysis of Customer Experience-and-Outcome Assessments of Professional Services for Personal Transformations." Journal of Business Research 67 (8):1647-70.

Abstract: Recognizing Gigerenzer's (1991) dictum that scientists' tools are not neutral (tools-in-use influence theory formulation as well as data interpretation), this article reports theory and examines data in ways that transcend the dominant logics for variable-based and case-based analyses. The theory and data analysis tests key propositions in complexity theory: (1) no single antecedent condition is a sufficient or necessary indicator of a high score in an outcome condition; (2) a few of many available complex configurations of antecedent conditions are sufficient indicators of high scores in an outcome condition; (3) contrarian cases occur, that is, low scores in a single antecedent condition associates with both high and low scores for an outcome condition for different cases; (4) causal asymmetry occurs, that is, accurate causal models for high scores for an outcome condition are not the mirror opposites of causal models for low scores for the same outcome condition. The study tests and supports these propositions in the context of customer assessments (n=436) of service facets and service outcome evaluations for assisted temporary-transformations of self via beauty salon and spa treatments. The findings contribute to advancing a nuanced theory of howcustomers' service evaluations relate to their assessments of overall service quality and intentions to use the service. The findings support the need for service managers to be vigilant in fine-tuning service facets and service enactment to achieve the objective of high customer retention.

Xu, Bo, Haichao Zheng, Yun Xu, and Tao Wang. 2016. "Configurational Paths to Sponsor Satisfaction in Crowdfunding." Journal of Business Research 69 (2):915-27.

Abstract: Crowdfunding is a new financing channel for small- and medium-sized enterprises and individual entrepreneurs to raise funds for innovation projects online. Different from business research based upon the conventional symmetric thinking, this paper investigates sponsor satisfaction in crowdfunding using asymmetric analytics. Cross-tabular and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) were conducted for the antecedent factors, including delivery timeliness, product quality, project novelty, sponsor participation and entrepreneur activeness, and sponsor demographics. The results show that cases contrary to their main effects occur, and configurational models with high predictive validity are sufficient for predicting sponsor satisfaction or dissatisfaction in crowdfunding projects. This paper supports the complexity theory and deepens crowdfunding research by providing insights into sponsor satisfaction from asymmetrical perspective. It also makes practical implications for crowdfunding platforms and entrepreneurs.

Yamasaki, Sakura. 2009. "A Boolean Analysis of Movement Impact on Nuclear Energy Policy." Mobilization: An International Journal 14 (4):485-504.

Abstract: The impacts of social movements on public policies have been studied extensively yet yield mixed results. Some results point to a strong impact of social movements, while others conclude that they do not possess any observable leverage on public policies. These mixed results may be linked to utilization of different methodological approaches. However, few studies have considered the possibility that movements may in fact prevent policy change. In this study, we argue that for high-profile policies such as nuclear energy, a low-key social mobilization is in some instances necessary for the occurrence of major policy changes. We further hypothesize that highly mobilized social movements may dampen the chance of major policy changes instead of promoting them. We briefly present the general model and the data before proceeding to the bounded exploratory analysis. This analysis raises questions about the role played by antinuclear movements in their quest for a major policy change. A theoretical explanation is then presented in an attempt to contribute to the clarification of the movement-policy debate.
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Yáñez, Clemente J. Navarro. 2004. "Participatory Democracy and Political Opportunism: Municipal Experience in Italy and Spain (1960-93)." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 28 (4):819-38.

Abstract: The relationship between local scale and participatory democracy is one of the main issues of normative theory of democracy. This article tries to show that the development of this model of democracy also depends on institutional factors. In his political opportunism hypothesis the author proposes that local governments have to develop adaptive strategies to make electoral victory compatible with offers of opportunities of participation: on the one hand, because the parties have to make government or opposition action compatible between local and central political levels; on the other, because the supply of participation presupposes the redistribution of power among local interest groups and the possibility of imposing limits over local government actions. To test this hypothesis, the author analyses data on citizen participation among Italian and Spanish local governments by qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). In conclusion, the author argues that political opportunism could limit local democratization and new urban governance initiatives.

Yilmaz, Cengiz, Kaan Varnali, and Berna Tari Kasnakoglu. 2016. "How do Firms Benefit from Customer Complaints?" Journal of Business Research 69 (2):944-55.

Abstract: The study explores the effects of two sets of factors relating to complaint management on firm performance, namely, (1) customer response factors and (2) organizational learning factors, thereby integrating organizational learning into the conceptualization of complaint management. Symmetric testing using hierarchical regression analysis of data obtained from complainants and firm managers revealed the joint effects of the two main paths on firm performance, independently from one another. Learning from complaints is shown to influence both short- and long-term firm-level performance measures positively. However, contrary to expectations, complainants' and managers' perceptions of fairness in the complaint handling processes of firms are found to (1) be nonrelated to short-term firm performances and (2) influence long-term performance expectancies negatively. Asymmetric analyses involving contrarian cases and further utilizing the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) disclosed distinct sets of antecedents that are sufficient for explaining short- and long-term firm performance.

Young, Kevin L., and Sung Ho Park. 2013. "Regulatory Opportunism: Cross-National Patterns in National Banking Regulatory Responses following the Global Financial Crisis." Public Administration 91 (3):561-81.

Abstract: The variation in national regulatory responses to the recent global financial crisis has been considerable. This article explores this variation using new data on conditions in 30 different OECD countries between 2009 and 2012. Using a mixed-method approach which employs both fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis and logistic regression, we test a number of hypotheses regarding regulatory response patterns in the banking sector. Our findings suggest that while state intervention during the financial crisis was a necessary condition for a significant regulatory response, 'financialization', operationalized here as the structural dominance of the financial sector in the economy, plays a more important role. We show that financialization is both a sufficient condition and a good predictor of a significant regulatory response, and point to possible causal explanations for this surprising pattern.

Young, Raymond, and Simon Poon. 2013. "Top Management Support - Almost always Necessary and sometimes Sufficient for Success: Findings from a Fuzzy Set Analysis." International Journal of Project Management 31 (7):943-57.

Abstract: This paper builds on the work of Young and Jordan (2008) to provide stronger empirical evidence of the importance of top management support for project success. Fuzzy set analysis of 15 cases showed top management support to be much more necessary than any other success factor and sometimes being sufficient for success. The research adds to the evidence that current practice emphasizing project methodologies may be misdirecting effort. The contribution of this research may be to provide enough evidence to influence top managers and practitioners to re-evaluate the conventional wisdom of the past 40-50 years. Researchers and practitioners, using the fuzzy-set analytical approach, are also introduced to a method to compare all their project experiences and determine conclusively the most important critical success factors for project success. There are significant implications for board, senior management and project management practice and academia.

Zeng, Jinghan. 2013. "What Matters Most in Selecting top Chinese Leaders? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis." Journal of Chinese Political Science 18 (3):223-39.

Abstract: This article analyses the selection criterion of China's most powerful leading body - the Politburo Standing Committee - by using Qualitative Comparative Analysis and the latest data of the 18th Party Congress in 2012. It finds that age, combined with institutional rules, is one of the dominant factors in deciding the appointment of leaders in 2012, suggesting the significance of institutional rules in today's elite politics in China. It also finds that candidates' patron-client ties with senior leaders did play a role but they are not always positive in terms of the career advancement of candidates. Moreover, and perhaps surprisingly, this study finds that powerful family backgrounds do not have positive impacts on promotion at the highest level.


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